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by alkawaldia at 08-16-2017, 02:16 AM
I m student of btech biotech first year
And i want to know in what thibg i should concentrate r work to get benefits ahead in my field ahead
by saswati mishra at 08-16-2017, 12:53 AM
Sir, I m in my 1styear msc biotechnology. I want to do internship for my experience. So, can you please instruct me from where I should do my internship? I m from odisha, so can you please suggest me some research center or company for my internship in odisha.
by johnpaul at 08-15-2017, 07:53 PM
What are the best academic citation tool?
by Harkirat at 08-14-2017, 05:16 PM
After doing in biotechnology, doing medical coding is good ? Guide me
by Samidha at 08-14-2017, 12:04 AM
I m doing my msc. In biotechnology. After the completion of it, i want to work in research laboratory and companies. So for me which of the above exam is important on the basis offurther doing mtech or phd??
Please help and advise me.[WHITE SMILING FACE]
by Harkirat at 08-13-2017, 07:07 PM
Hey, I completed my biotechnology and no clue about jobs. Plzzzzz suggests me some idea or whatever in ur mind guys [FACE WITH MEDICAL MASK]
by Harshinistanford at 08-10-2017, 10:45 PM
Plz suggest me some best,,free,,useful GRE apps
by Lavkeshsharma at 08-10-2017, 01:38 AM
Exam is organised every year in month of February by one among the top 7 IITs and IISC Bangalore on a rotational basis .

It offers admission into MSc and integrated Phd. Programs

Eligibility : Bachelor's degree 55 % aggregate marks, without rounding off for General/OBC and 50 % aggregate for SC/ST

Note : Candidates must have passed Mathematics at 10+2 level for admission in IIT Bombay and IIT roorkee.

If you didn't have mathematics in 10+2, but still wants to get admission in these institutes then check out this video. It may help

Exam structure : Total marks 100. There are 60 questions divided into three sections A,B and C.

Section A:
(MCQ)Multiple Choice Questions Contain 30 questions. 10 questions are of one marks and 20 questions are of two marks. Total weightage of this section : 50 marks
Negative Marking: 1/3 for one mark question and 2/3 for two mark question

Section B:
(MSQ) Multiple Select Questions contain 10 questions. These questions may have one or more correct answers. There are 10 questions two marks each. Total weightage : 20 marks No negative marking

Section C :
Numerical Answer Type ( NAT) contain 20 questions. Out of 20,10 with one mark and 10 question with two mark each.Total weightage : 30 marks
No negative marking.

In the question paper, 44% of the questions will be on Biology of 10+2+3 level, 20% of the questions will be on Chemistry of 10+2+3 level, 18% of the questions will be on Physics of 10+2 level, and rest 18% of the questions will be on Mathematics of 10+2 level. You can thus study for Physics and Mathematics largely from classes 11 and 12 books for the same. However for Biology and Chemistry you will need to refer higher level books.

Syllabus :

Biology (10 + 2 + 3 level)

General Biology: Taxonomy; Heredity; Genetic variation; Conservation; Principles of ecology; Evolution; Techniques in modern biology.

Biochemistry and Physiology: Carbohydrates; Proteins; Lipids; Nucleic acids; Enzymes; Vitamins; Hormones; Metabolism-Glycolysis, TCA cycle, Oxidative Phosphoryation; Photosynthesis. Nitrogen Fixation, Fertilization and Osmoregulation; Vertebrates - Nervous system; Endocrine system; Vascular system; Immune system; Digestive system and Reproductive System.

Basic Biotechnology: Tissue culture; Application of enzymes; Antigen-antibody interaction; Antibody production; Diagnostic aids.

Molecular Biology: DNA; RNA; Replication; Transcription; Translation; Proteins; Lipids and Membranes; Operon model; Gene transfer.

Cell Biology: Cell cycle; Cytoskeletal elements; Mitochondria; Endoplasmic reticulum; Chloroplast; Golgi apparatus; Signaling.

Microbiology: Isolation; Cultivation; Structural features of virus; Bacteria; Fungi; Protozoa; Pathogenic micro-organisms.

Chemistry 10 + 2 + 3 level)

Atomic Structure: Bohr's theory and Schrodinger wave equation; Periodicity in properties; Chemical bonding; Properties of s, p, d and f block elements; Complex formation; Coordination compounds; Chemical equilibria; Chemical thermodynamics (first and second law); Chemical kinetics (zero, first, second and third order reactions); Photochemistry; Electrochemistry; Acid-base concepts; Stereochemistry of carbon compounds; Inductive, electromeric, conjugative effects and resonance; Chemistry of Functional Groups: Hydrocarbons, alkyl halides, alcohols, aldehydes, ketones, carboxylic acids, amines and their derivatives; Aromatic hydrocarbons, halides, nitro and amino compounds, phenols, diazonium salts, carboxylic and sulphonic acids; Mechanism of organic reactions; Soaps and detergents; Synthetic polymers; Biomolecules-amino acids, proteins, nucleic acids, lipids and carbohydrates (polysaccharides); Instrumental techniques-chromatography (TLC, HPLC), electrophoresis, UV-Vis, IR and NMR spectroscopy, mass spectrometry.

Mathematics 10 + 2 level)

Sets, Relations and Functions, Mathematical Induction, Logarithms, Complex numbers, Linear and Quadratic equations, Sequences and Series, Trigonometry, Cartesian System of Rectangular Coordinates, Straight lines and Family, Circles, Conic Sections, Permutations and Combinations, Binomial Theorem, Exponential and Logarithmic Series, Mathematical Logic, Statistics, Three Dimensional Geometry, Vectors, Matrices and Determinants, Boolean Algebra, Probability, Functions, limits and Continuity, Differentiation, Application of Derivatives, Definite and Indefinite Integrals, Differential Equations.

Physics 10 + 2 level)

Physical World and Measurement, Elementary Statics and Dynamics, Kinematics, Laws of Motion, Work, Energy and Power, Electrostatics, Current electricity, Magnetic Effects of Current and Magnetism, Electromagnetic Induction and Alternating Current, Electromagnetic waves, Optics, Dual Nature of Matter and Radiations, Atomic Nucleus, Solids and Semiconductor Devices, Principles of Communication, Motion of System of Particles and Rigid Body, Gravitation, Mechanics of Solids and Fluids, Heat and Thermodynamics, Oscillations, Waves.
by Harshinistanford at 08-09-2017, 11:27 AM
Plz suggest any safe online jobs or some of exam that give scholarships for my part time earning for buying books and some other stuffs...Currently I'm an 2nd year biomedical engineering student......
by Harshinistanford at 08-09-2017, 11:25 AM
Currently I'm in my 2nd year of biomedical engineering...I want to pursue research in genetics @ Stanford....Suggest me which is the best Harvard, Stanford or MIT
by Harshinistanford at 08-09-2017, 11:16 AM
Currently I'm in my 2nd year of biomedical engineering...I wish to do direct PhD in genetics at Stanford school of science through GRE....Is my decision right?¿....And also I wish to clear GATE2018(BT) for stipend......Do I get stipend for gate,,If I study @ Stanford?¿....And wats the scope for phd in genetics at Stanford¿?
by archana tnwr at 08-09-2017, 02:20 AM
Sir I am 3 yr bsc biotech student i am confuse about which stream to choose after bsc in post graduation msc biotech ,micro,biochem , food tech and sir pls tell about the scope of food tech and entrance exam of it and best colleges and which book we should refer for food tech entrnc
by JeroJuujarvi at 08-09-2017, 01:46 AM
Cashmere is known for its rarity, hence the hefty price tag on your cashmere sweater. But there’s a chance that it could even become rarer than it is now. There’s a threat in the cashmere industry and yet there might also be a solution that could cure all…

The rarity of cashmere wool comes from the fact that it is created from the wool on a goat’s undercoat that only grows in winter. One goat produces as much as four ounces annually, resulting in not nearly as much production as the other fabrics that we can get. Its rarity is what makes cashmere ever so luxurious.

If it’s that hard to get more production, since it takes 2 goats to create one cashmere sweater, then the question is “why not double up the goats?”

This is where the problem begins…

Mongolia is the second largest cashmere producer, standing only behind China. These cashmere goats have been quite a great source of income for Mongolians. So, increasing the goat population is definitely already on the Mongolian herders’ to-do list. However, there’s an underlying cause to why doubling up the goat population is not enough.

The climate change.

Back in 2010, CNN put this crisis into the spotlight. They interviewed a Mongolian herder who revealed that the grassland was getting worse year after year. The change of nature had created less quality of the grassland. The aforementioned fact about the profitable cashmere as an income source also has made more Mongolians opt out of being herders. Things became complicated when the decreased quality of the grasslands because of the climate change met the increased number of goats there. According to NPR, the climate change has caused 4-degree Fahrenheit rise in average temperature in Mongolia and the goats also take their part in decreasing the grasslands’ quality.

These are the reasons why goats are not earth-friendly, as described by Clean by Design:
  • They consume more than 10% of their body weight daily in roughage
  • They eat very close to the roots thus destroying plants
  • Their stiletto-like hoofs also damage topsoil and grass root system

Although it’s always possible to get the grasslands green again naturally but goats have rapid reproduction, meaning that they can have multiple births at a time. So, with this rapid reproduction increasing the population of goats, many more goats will be around and the grasslands will still be just as bad as it is now.

Now you see why cashmere production has raised a controversy between cashmere industry and environmentalists. It’s undeniable that cashmere production is not easy on the environment.

People in the cashmere industry are also concerned by this, as it will soon be a threat to their business growth. Sustainable Fibre Alliance (SFA) has teamed up with companies, governments, and NGOs to establish the first Sustainable Cashmere Standard. NOYA Fibers also partnered with The Nature Conservancy to implement sustainable grazing practices in Mongolia.

The cashmere crisis went on and in 2016, updated the situation of the Mongolian grasslands with bad news. The demand is still high for cashmere, but we cannot also neglect the ever de-greening grasslands back in Mongolia. Everyone, from the herders, cashmere, and fashion companies to environmentalists have been facing this dilemma and trying their best to find a solution. Their efforts are still considered too small to maintain the sustainability of both the cashmere business and the environment. If anything, a possible quick way to solve this issue is to lower either the quality or the quantity of cashmere. If so, you’ll probably have to take more serious care of your cashmere sweaters in the case that it will be even rarer in the future.

It may not be soon enough since the cashmere business is hanging by the thread, but as the clock is ticking, we better come up with a solution as fast as we can.

Now, genome editing has helped the Chinese herders in Shaanxi province with producing  hairier goats that result in much more cashmere production. While we also have to take serious care of the Mongolian grasslands and any other grasslands out there, with genome-editing, we don’t have to worry about the increased number of goats while at the same time worrying about the ever de-greening grasslands.

A group of scientists from Shaanxi Provincial Engineering and Technology Research Center for Shaanbei in China has successfully created the hairier goats by using CRISPR. Fibroblast growth factor 5 (FGF5) is responsible for determining the hair length in some animals, including goats and humans. The scientists edited the FGF5, along with MSTN, which also made those goats end up with more meat along with more hair. By disrupting a single gene, scientists have found not only longer cashmere, but the edited goats also yield a third more cashmere than the normal goats. Crispr cas-9 that the scientists used has increased more length and quantity of cashmere from one goat but not the diameter of the cashmere fiber. This modification is also likely to be transmitted to the offspring of the Crispr modified goats.

There’s no information yet about the quality of the cashmere from gene-edited goats being higher than the normal ones. Although the scientists say that there is no hair differentiation caused by the genetic modification. Some international regulators doubt the authenticity of the cashmere as the goats’ natural mutations are edited. However, the scientists aren’t planning to commercialize the edited goats anytime soon. There are other tests that they want to do in order to know if there are other effects caused by the mutations. One of the scientists even said that this could take years of work.

So, once this is commercialized, it will really improve the genetics in goats. This research means a lot to Shaanxi, as they are well-known for their cashmere production. We can think of CRISPR goats as the win-win solution for everyone involved in the business.

The cashmere industry has kept expanding since 2011 both in Mongolia and China. In Mongolia, the high demand of cashmere has resulted in over 4000 tons in 2011 and escalated to 8900 tons in 2015. Last year, the cashmere industry in Mongolia successfully made their $9.6 million revenue — so far the best on records — from their exports. China, they exported more than 200,000 kg of cashmere by October 2016 to 9 countries. The cashmere industry is likely to expand in the next year after looking at its rapid growth.

With the rapid growth and high demands, it indeed has attracted young entrepreneurs to enter the industry. Matt Scanlan decided to set foot into the industry after his visit to Mongolia in 2012. Amazed by the culture and the charisma of it, he told Bloomberg how every herder knows the name of each goat. He is currently the CEO of Nadaam Cashmere where the aim is not only to sell high quality cashmere at fair prices, but also to give back to the Mongolian grasslands and society. His company actively gives veterinary care to goats. They’re now planning to build fences there to help prevent the climate change because of excessive grazing. Their yarning process in Italy also causes no damage to the environment by using clean energy. More than just a charity, Nadaam’s business focuses on sustainability as a business practice.

It is surprising to know how the population of these cashmere goats are standing side by side with the climate change and taking their toll on the environments. To achieve the goals of people involved in this issue, we have to decrease the number of goats to save the environment without losing the number of production of cashmere. The math is simple, but putting it into action may not be. Now, this is the scene where CRISPR goats would save us from the cashmere doomsday.

With CRISR goats, we would have control over their reproduction, minimize the danger their hooves cause to the environment, and get the same, or possibly much more production of cashmere. The reproduction control we have over the CRISPR goats is creating these opportunities below:

  1. Everyone involved in this issue could calm down and take baby steps towards the goals they want. The heat between the cashmere industry, fashion companies, and environmentalists could melt down with CRISPR goats. The cashmere industry and fashion companies could safely continue their business while at the same supporting the environmentalists to help the environment go back green again.

  2. CRISPR goats yield more cashmere than normal goats. In numbers, from the CRISPR goats that are still in the labs, there’s a 92.75 gr of cashmere increase from each 4 month old CRISPR goat on average. The length of cashmere is increased too.

  3. In Mongolia, sand has replaced the grass where the grass used to grow. However, goats eat almost anything even when there’s a lack of grass patches. This means the herders have to buy the grains to feed the goats. If the herders could have as much cashmere production with half the number of normal goats, such as with CRISPR goats, then they wouldn’t have to bother buying food supplies in the city. Budget wise, it’s more than just good.

  4. What’s good can be better. Even when goats are willing to eat anything, their favorite food would still be grass. There’s barely even grass anymore on Mongolian land, and it has raised concerns about the quality of cashmere. When CRISPR goats arrive, maybe they would have to be fed by the mix of grains while waiting for the grass to grow again. When the environment has finally healed, they will be able to eat the grass again, as it will just get better for herders and the goats themselves.
China is so supportive in gene-editing projects that they even have tried it on human embryos. If one day these scientists prove that there’s no harm and only improvement in the gene-edited goats to cashmere production, China might soon utilize the gene-edited cashmere. In addition, TIME magazine has named these CRISPR goats as one of the 100 Most Influential Animals of 2016 even before they come out to play.

We’ve taken a look at the opportunities CRISPR goats might bring when they arrive. But there’s still one more problem.

The GMO products controversy.

CRISPR may be new here, but many breeders have already implemented different techniques to develop and refine animals by doing selective breeding. An improvement made by selective breeding that we can all still relate to it from the dairy cows in the US. Traditional selective breeding has reduced the number of cows from 25.6 million in 1944 to just 9 million today with increased milk productivity by as much as 1.6 times. With that in mind, think how much cashmere can be improved faster through gene editing?

Alison Van Eenennaam, an expert in animal genetics and biotechnology at the University of California Davis says, “Thanks to improvements made in the dairy industry through traditional breeding, a glass of milk today is associated with just one third of the greenhouse gas emissions linked to producing a glass of milk in the 1940s.”

Now we can see that the problems with dairy cows are much likely the same with cashmere goats. Both the environment and animal welfare are on edge because they’re on the opposite side from each other, and the climate change’s taking over. As traditional breeding has improved our livestock and contributed to the environment sustainability, so could CRISPR.

It’s true that many more tests have to be done and preparations have to be made before they come out on the stage. When it comes to cashmere goats, just like the dairy cows, it is more than just a change of appearance like the micropigs which would aim to be the next it-pet. Many more drug and food animals are being tested in the labs with CRISPR to improve their and our own lives.

We can’t really talk yet about the risks of the CRISPR goats’ existence, as many things will soon be revealed through the continuous work of the scientists. When it comes to the regulations, greenlights from the FDA have been given to some genome-edited plants but never before to animals. The FDA proposed regulations for genome editing products in January which says all animals whose genomes have been intentionally altered must be examined for safety, which is similar to the process of approving drugs. Many researchers aren’t happy about these proposed regulations. Alison Van Eenennaam said to Nature that this could mean a loss of interest in developing gene-edited animals in businesses, universities, and NGOs.

Surely, many fashion companies have acted on the decreased quality of grassland in Mongolia just as Naadam does. CRISPR will definitely boost their pro-environmental activities and many other aspects in cashmere industry. However, there are still many things to be tested, reviewed, and considered. But if the development is supported by many, especially from the governments and communities, maybe in the next 5 or 10 years the cashmere clothing business will be the next big thing. CRISPR will always be developed for its use. Who knows? Maybe once we accept cashmere from CRISPR goats, scientists could create a stronger cashmere fibers, or make it anti-wet and able to give more heat. Anything sounds possible. We’ll know that after the approval of these soon to be super goats.
by binu at 08-08-2017, 04:22 PM
Please add to this list of institutes which provide a PhD in Bioinformatics (specifically) so that a comprehensive list can be prepared.

Allahabad University
Amity University
Anna University, Chennai
Bharathidasan University, TamilNadu
Banasthali University, Rajasthan
Bose Institute, Kolkata
Calcutta University
Central University of South Bihar, Gaya
Dr. D.Y. Patil Biotechnology and Bioinformatics Institute, Pune
IBAB, Bangalore
IIIT Allahabad
IIIT Delhi
IIIT Hyderabad
Jaypee University of Information Technology, Solan, Himachal Pradesh
JNU, New Delhi (PhD in Life Science)
Karunya University, Tamil Nadu
National Institute of Technology, Bhopal
North-Eastern Hill University(NEHU), Shillong
Pondicherry University
Sastra University,Tamil Nadu
Shiv Nadar University, Noida
SHUATS, Allahabad
University of Hyderabad
University of Pune
WBUT, (MAKAUT) Salt Lake, Kolkata
by Lavkeshsharma at 08-08-2017, 05:26 AM
    US firm AquaBounty Technologies says that its transgenic fish has hit the market after a 25-year wait.

The genetically engineered AquaBounty salmon shown here is about twice the size of its wild kin, although both are roughly the same age. 

Genetically engineered salmon has reached the dinner table. AquaBounty Technologies, the company in Maynard, Massachusetts, that developed the fish, announced on 4 August that it has sold some 4.5 tonnes of its hotly debated product to customers in Canada.

The sale marks the first time that a genetically engineered animal has been sold for food on the open market. It took AquaBounty more than 25 years to get to this point.

The fish, a variety of Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar), is engineered to grow faster than its non-genetically modified counterpart, reaching market size in roughly half the time — about 18 months. AquaBounty sold its first commercial batch at market price: US$5.30 per pound ($11.70 per kilogram), says Ron Stotish, the company’s chief executive. He would not disclose who bought it.
AquaBounty raised the fish in tanks in a small facility in Panama. It plans to ramp up production by expanding a site on Canada’s Prince Edward Island, where local authorities gave the green light for construction in June. In the same month, the company also acquired a fish farm in Albany, Indiana; it awaits the nod from US regulators to begin production there.

The sale of the fish follows a long, hard-fought battle to navigate regulatory systems and win consumer acceptance. “Somebody’s got to be first and I’m glad it was them and not me,” says James West, a geneticist at Vanderbilt University in Nashville, Tennessee, who co-founded AgGenetics, a start-up company in Nashville that is engineering cattle for the dairy and beef industries. “If they had failed, it might have killed the engineered livestock industry for a generation,” he says.

Swimming upstream

AquaBounty’s gruelling path from scientific discovery to market terrified others working in animal biotechnology, and almost put the company out of business on several occasions. Scientists first demonstrated the fast-growing fish in 1989. They gave it a growth-hormone gene from Chinook salmon (Oncorhynchus tshawytscha), along with genetic regulatory elements from a third species, the ocean pout (Zoarces americanus). The genetic modifications enable the salmon to produce a continuous low level of growth hormone.

AquaBounty formed around the technology in the early 1990s and approached regulators in the United States soon after. It then spent almost 25 years in regulatory limbo. The US Food and Drug Administration (FDA) approved the salmon for consumption in November 2015, and Canadian authorities came to the same decision six months later. Neither country requires the salmon to be labelled as genetically engineered.

But unlike in Canada, political battles in the United States have stalled the salmon’s entry into the marketplace. The law setting out the US government’s budget for fiscal year 2017 includes a provision that instructs the FDA to forbid the sale of transgenic salmon until it has developed a programme to inform consumers that they are buying a genetically engineered product. Senator Lisa Murkowski (Republican, Alaska), who inserted the provision, has called AquaBounty’s salmon “fake fish”.

Activists in both the United States and Canada have demanded that regulators reconsider their decisions, and some have filed lawsuits. The Center for Food Safety, an environmental-advocacy group in Washington DC, sued the FDA last year in an attempt to overturn its salmon decision. The group says the agency lacks the legal authority to oversee genetically engineered animals, and that it made its decision without fully considering the environmental risks.

The announcement that AquaBounty’s fish are landing on Canadian tables is sure to dredge up opposition, says Stotish. He argues that the genetically engineered fish are good for the economy — attractive because they can be grown near metropolitan areas rather than being flown in from overseas, bringing salmon-farming jobs back to the United States and Canada. And because the AquaBounty salmon are grown in tanks, he adds, they don’t encounter many of the pathogens and parasites that often afflict salmon raised in sea cages.

“I think the larger market is viewing it as a more predictable, sustainable source of salmon," Stotish says. “As a first sale this was very positive and encouraging for us.”
by Lavkeshsharma at 08-08-2017, 05:03 AM

Description :

A biochip is a device that has some of the features of a computer chip but, instead of doing calculations, it uses living cells(or molecules from living cells) to greatly speed up certain laboratory tests.A typical biochip is a glass or plastic chip or tile a few inches on a side. It has hundreds or even tens of thousands of microscope droplets of material stuck to its surface like gum on a sidewalk. A computer looks at the chip using a camera. Information from a biochip can be used to learn about differences between genes,cells or drugs. It can also be used to study many other questions about cells. Biochips are also called microarrays, where micro means "small" and an array is any regular grid,such as a chessboard. The droplets on a biochip are laid down in a checkerboard pattern. A square chip five inches (thirteen centimeters) on a side may have 40,000 or more spots on its surface.

The most common kind of biochip is the DNA microarray,also called a gene chip or DNA chip.
In one type of DNA chip,genes - short pieces of DNA that code for single molecules - are placed on the chip. Since even large molecules are too small to see with the naked eye , millions of copies of each gene can be placed on a tiny spot on the chip.
Scientific Foundations :

There are several kinds of DNA chip. This is a simplified explanation of how one kind of DNA chip works. In a DNA chip, each separate spot ( also called a probe ) contains one type of defective gene. To find out if a person has any of these defective genes in their own DNA, DNA is taken from the person's cells. Copy of person's DNA are made, and these copies are labeled, meaning that they include a chemical that glows when ultraviolet light ( which is invisible to the eye ) shines on it. Small drops of liquid containing labeled copies of the person's DNA are then added to the spots on the biochip.

A normal DNA molecule is shaped like a ladder, but the DNA copies being mixed on the biochip are one - sided copies, like a ladder that has been sawed in half lengthwise, cutting every rung in half. When two pieces of one - sided DNA that have matching rungs ( or bases, as they are called ) meet, they lock or zip together. When this happens, the two pieces of DNA are said to hybridize. If the patient's gene match any of the defective genes that have been put on the biochip, they will attach to ( hybridize with ) those defective genes.

The chip is then washed to remove any of the person's DNA that has not found a match on the chip. Finally, the chip is placed in ultraviolet light, and a camera records any spots that glow. These are spots where the labeled copies of the person's DNA have matched up with DNA on the chip.

Examining a patient's DNA for defects is called genetic screening. By using a biochip, genetic screening can be done very quickly - all the tests can be done at once, rather than doing hundreds or even thousands of separate tests.

Genetic screening is only one way of using biochips. Another important use for biochips is to study how genes are used by living cells. Each gene tells the cell how to make a certain protein molecule. Cells read the recipe given by the gene by first making another molecule, mRNA, which copies the information in the gene. The mRNA can then go to a place in a cell that will build the molecule that the genes codes for. The more mRNA a cell has for a gene at a particular time, the more it is said to be "expressing" that gene that is , the more of that particular molecule it is making. Gene expression changes all the time for thousands of genes in every cell.

In the laboratory, scientists can make DNA molecules from the mRNA found in a cell. This matching DNA is called cDNA ( complementary DNA ). If a biochip has all the genes of an organism dotted on its surface, then cDNA made from the mRNA in a cell can attach to ( hybridize with ) the genes on the chip. The more a gene is being expressed in the cell, the more cDNA for that gene there will be, and the more that cDNA will stick to the matching genes on the biochip. Spots with more labeled cDNA will glow more brightly under ultraviolet light. In this way, scientists can literally take a snapshot of how the genes in a cell are being expressed at any one time - how much the cell is making, at that moment, of thousands of different substances. This is extremely useful in trying to understand how cancer cells grow and in many other medical problems.

Development :

The development of biochips begain in the 1990s, when scientists' knowledge of genetics ( the science of DNA ) and computers made biochips practical. To make a biochip, one must have a way of depositing thousands of microscopic droplets on a surface exactly where they need to go. Ways of handling, multiplyin, and reading pieces of DNA are necessary to create biochips, and these techniques were not invented until the 1960s and 1970s.

In 1988, a new company , Affymetrix, decided to combine the methods used to make computer chips with new DNA technologies. Affymetrix's first biochip, a DNA microarray, went on sale in 1996. Today, at least six different companies make a wide variety of biochips

Current Issues :

Biochips are being used today to do DNA screening and to study gene expression in cancer cells, as well as for many other purposes. In 2005, the U.S. Food and Drug Administration approved a biochip test system called the Amplichip Cytochrome P450 Genotyping Test, made by Roche Molecular Systems, Inc. Cytochrome P450 genes affect how the liver breaks down some drugs. Every person has slightly different P450 genes. The AmpliChip contains different versions of the P450 genes on its surface. DNA from a patient is then added to the chip to see which kinds of P450 genes the patient happens to have. Which P450 genes they have affects how quickly their body breaks down some drugs, including drugs used for depression ( sadness that will not go away) and cancer. Patients whose bodies can break down a drug more quickly may need larger drug doses.

Biochips are having an effect on the study of genes almost a great as the effect computer chips had on computing a few decades ago.
by nasir at 08-07-2017, 04:05 AM
hi all my friends i kindly request you to help me with CTAP procedure to an isolation of Genomic DNA from Marine sample,
                                                                             Thanks in advance
Rolleyes Rolleyes Rolleyes Rolleyes Rolleyes Rolleyes
by dikchan at 08-05-2017, 04:26 PM
It is to be held on 10 and 11th of August 2017 at gitam University. It's an international conference. Students can also attend the conference by paying some entry fee.
by Lavkeshsharma at 08-04-2017, 11:38 PM


Botox is a pure form of the botulism toxin called Clostridium botulinum type A.Physicians use it in very small amounts to relax muscle contractions for neurological disorders,such as cerebral palsy, and other disorders with muscle contractions (in which muscles tighten uncontrollably). Originally, it was used for the treatment of crossed eyes.
As a product of allergan,Inc.,it is a cosmetic procedure that has grown in popularity.Cosmetic surgeons inject it under the skin and into muscles to temporarily reduce facial wrinkles. It is used to remove frown lines of the nose and forehead, and wrinkles around the eyes and mouth. Patients typically see results within a week, although longer response times may occur for smaller injections.The injections can be repeated when the effect wears off, usually between three to twelve months.Dosages are kept low because repeat users usually build up an immunity to Botox.Side effects,such as allergic reactions,are rare.Some patients may see some bruising around the injected area. The most common side effect is a headache.
Scientific Foundations:

The C. botulinum toxin is a poisonous bacterium. It can cause paralysis and death when eaten in contaminated food. However, C. botulinum can also heal people when used in a purified form by controlling muscle contractions.

The bacteria and spores of C. botulinum are found in soils of farmlands and forests and sediments of streams,lakes and coastal waters. The spores are also found on fruits and vegetables and in shellfish. The bacteria and spores cannot hurt humans. It is when they grow that the toxin is produced, which is the substance that harms people. There are seven varieties of C. botulinum, designated by the letters A,B,C,D,E,F and G. Types A,B,E,and F cause human botulism, while types C and D cause animal botulism. Type G is found in soil primarily in Argentina but has not yet caused botulism.


In 1989, the U.S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA) approved a pure form of the botulism toxin as a medicine called Botox. It treated two types of muscle problems with the eyes. The toxin weakened the muscle but did not affect surrounding muscles. Since, that time, Botox has been used to treat bad muscle posture and tension, muscle spasms of the neck and shoulder, uncontrollable blinking of the eyes, clenching of the jaw muscles, bladder muscle contractions, and nerve disorders.

The American society for Aesthetic Plastic Surgery reported that 1.6 million treatments of Botox were given in 2001, an increase of 46 percent over 2000. On April 15, 2002, the FDA approved C. botulinum toxin type A for the temporary relief of frown lines between the eyebrows after a scientific study showed that test subjects that used Botox had wrinkles reduce or disappear within thirty days.

Current issues:

The use of Botox concerned many people because it is one of the most poisonous materials known.When it was first introduced in the United States, many people did not like the idea of being injected in the face with poison. However, it also gained support from large numbers of users because it was an easy procedure with quick results. It is also relatively inexpensive when compared to cosmetic surgeries

Scientific studies show that 0.000001 milligram per one kilogram
of body weight will cause death in people half the time. However, according to the Food and Drug Administration, its safety record is very good.

Botox can leak into nearby areas causing temporary weakness of muscles. Around the eye, for example , the problem can cause difficulty in lifting the eyelids or double vision. People who use Botox may develop allergic reaction or immunity to it Injections in the same area may cause the muscle to weaken, what is called dimpling. Botox has been used for many years so its long - term effects are well known. Some patients may develop difficulty in breathing, swallowing, or talking. Pregnant woman should not take Botox because the risks to the foetus are not known.

Problems have occurred when unqualified people inject Botox incorrectly into patients. Many times Botox has been injected in salons, gyms, motel rooms, and other unsanitary areas that may not be safe. The FDA recommends that all Botox treatments be taken in a sterile environment from a physician who is certified in facial cosmetics.
by kamsharma at 08-03-2017, 04:15 PM
Pls suggest me best clg for MSc in biotechnology... Coz it's too late now.. plzz
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