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by natarajan at 11-06-2017, 03:14 AM
i am a ug biotech student.can i pursue mtech in agricultural and food engineering offered by iit kharagpur? if so ,what paper must i write in gate exam?kindly reply.thanking in advance.
by Bhavani murugan at 11-04-2017, 05:14 AM
Can please someone give me the detailed information about tumor suppressor genes?
by Aakash Yadav at 11-01-2017, 08:13 PM
Respected Sir,
I am Aakash Yadav, a 3rd year undergrad and i have started preparing for gate 2019 exam and for it i joined GATEFORUM online test series which i read in an interview of Ameya Dravid (gate BT 2017 AIR-2) and i found it useless,its questions are not at all related to gate and since then i am not able to find a good test series to join or a good book havind MCQ questions other than previous year questions,so can you please help me?
by Lavkeshsharma at 10-28-2017, 02:54 PM
Two groups of scientists have revealed a new, more precise arsenal of gene-editing techniques that could one day help us eradicate genetic diseases with highly targeted surgery at the chemical level.


The new adaptations to CRISPR-Cas9 enable single-letter changes in DNA base pairs and also provide the ability to edit single RNA base pairs in human cells – powerful refinements that some are heralding as the arrival of ' CRISPR 2.0 '.

They developed a new base editor – a molecular machine – that in a programmable, irreversible, efficient, and clean manner can correct [mutations] in the genome of living cells.

"When targeted to certain sites in human genomic DNA, this conversion reverses the mutation that is associated with a particular disease."

About half of human disease-associated ' point mutations ' come down to mix-ups in the nucleobase pairs between the chemicals adenine (A), cytosine ©, guanine (G), and thymine (T), which make up our DNA.

Thanks to CRISPR-Cas9 , however, scientists can alter genome structures with a technique that effectively cuts, copies, and pastes molecular arrangements of these base pairs – but up until now, the technique wasn't able to switch single DNA base pairs and instead removed entire sections.

A new system developed by the team called Adenine Base Editor (ABE) changes this, making much neater edits possible, by rearranging the atoms of adenine to resemble guanine (G), prompting A-T base pairs to becomes G-C instead.

That might not sound like much, but of the 32,000 point mutations that we know are tied to disease, about half could be solved via that single swap.

When combined with other base-editing systems called BE3 and BE4 – which were also devised by Liu's team – the discovery could help us fix almost two-thirds of all disease-causing mutations.

The greater precision of the technique should enable finer genetic manipulations than ever before, introducing fewer random errors carried over from adjacent nucleobases that are inevitably copied over with the targeted DNA.

In a separate but related study published in Science , another team from the Broad Institute details its development of what's called Cas13 – a CRISPR protein that makes editing of RNA possible.

Unlike DNA editing, which makes permanent changes to a genome structure by rearranging nucleobases, RNA editing is a lighter, non-permanent technique, in this case made possible by another precise swap: changing adenosine to inosine, which is interpreted in cells as guanine.

In cells, RNA acts as a kind of messenger that helps to regulate how our genes produce proteins.

Because it doesn't actually mess with the genes themselves like DNA editing, the method wouldn't result in lasting, significant changes to how our bodies function, but could still create temporary ways of addressing mutations.

So far, we've gotten very good at inactivating genes, but actually recovering lost protein function is much more challenging

"This new ability to edit RNA opens up more potential opportunities to recover that function and treat many diseases, in almost any kind of cell."

Of course, it will be some time before either of these new systems find their way into helping patients in clinical situations, as while the technology now exists, we won't ultimately know how reliable, safe, and effective these methods are until more research on them is conducted.

But they're both incredibly promising developments in health science, and ones that may one day be used to treat conditions including genetic blindness, metabolic disorders, Parkinson's disease, and many more.

Creating a machine that makes the genetic change you need to treat a disease is an important step forward, but it's only one part of what's needed to treat a patient.

"We still have to deliver that machine, we have to test its safety, we have to assess its beneficial effects… But having the machine is a good start."

The findings are reported in Nature and Science
by Lavkeshsharma at 10-28-2017, 02:39 PM
Rough times leave a mark on the brain.


A new kind of epigenetic edit recently discovered in the brain cells of mammals has been found to occur when the individual has been stressed, hinting at underlying neurological functions.

Researchers still aren't entirely sure how this particular type of epigenetic modification works, but its elevated presence in mice that suffer through rough times suggests it could play a central role in a number of neuropsychiatric problems.

Broadly speaking, epigenetics describes the variety of changes that alter how a genetic code is read.

One common type of epigenetic edit involves the addition or removal of a methyl group onto a base , made up of a carbon holding onto three hydrogens.

Added to a base making up a nucleic acid sequence, this group can effectively render a gene unreadable. It's a convenient way of switching off a gene without mutating its code.

In most cases, especially among mammals, it's the base cytosine © that's methylated.

Methylation of another base, adenosine (A) , was mostly found in simple organisms such as bacteria.

That all changed in recent years with the discovery of 6-methyl A in the embryos of mice.

While this kind of methylation seems to play an important role in regulating the development of brain cells, it's still early days for investigating the biochemical differences surrounding the two different approaches to epigenetics.

In an effort to better understand the adenosine-based style of genetic tweaking, an international team of scientists led by researchers from the Emory University School of Medicine in the US studied the brains of mice put under stressful conditions.

Environmental factors have long been known to play a significant role in causing cells to methylate their DNA. This often means that events happening during development can have life-long genetic consequences.

These 'switches' can even be inherited, meaning a time of stress for one organism can echo down the generations .

To give the young mice some grief without causing too much anguish, the researchers forced them to go for a swim and picked them up by the tail – the rodent equivalent of a hard day at the office.

Later, they analysed the pre-frontal cortex section of their brain, finding the levels of methylated adenosine had jumped four-fold compared with the less-stressed mice.

They found that 6-methyl A is dynamic, which could suggest a functional role. The enzymes that recognise, add and erase this type of DNA methylation are still mysterious.

They also found the modified base appeared in areas between genes more than in genes that coded for proteins.

In other words, something was removing the methyl groups from the adenosine inside particular genes that were needed to deal with their stress.

Many of the genes that remained methylated appeared to match those that have been associated with neuropsychiatric disorders such as those on the autism and schizophrenia spectrum.

More research is needed to connect the dots between stress, adenosine methylation, and these kinds of neurological conditions.

But detailing the subtle differences in how genes deal with changes in the environment on the fly is the first step for us to find out where it might go wrong.

This research was published in Nature Communications .
by Lavkeshsharma at 10-28-2017, 04:36 AM
Although bacteria have no sensory organs in the classical sense, they are still masters in perceiving their environment. A research group at the University of Basel's Biozentrum has now discovered that bacteria not only respond to chemical signals, but also possess a sense of touch. In their recent publication in Science, the researchers demonstrate how bacteria recognize surfaces and respond to this mechanical stimulus within seconds. This mechanism is also used by pathogens to colonize and attack their host cells.

Sense of touch: Swimming bacteria can sense surfaces with the flagellum.

Be it through mucosa or the intestinal lining, different tissues and surfaces of our body are entry gates for bacterial pathogens. The first few seconds -- the moment of touch -- are often critical for successful infections. Some pathogens use mechanical stimulation as a trigger to induce their virulence and to acquire the ability to damage host tissue. The research group led by Prof. Urs Jenal, at the Biozentrum of the University of Basel, has recently discovered how bacteria sense that they are on a surface and what exactly happens in these crucial first few seconds.

Research focused only on chemical signals

In recent decades, research has made enormous progress in exploring how bacteria perceive and process chemical signals.However, a little knowledge is available regarding how bacteria read out mechanical stimuli and how they change their behavior in response to these cues. Using the non-pathogenic Caulobacter as a model, group was able to show for the first time that bacteria have a 'sense of touch'. This mechanism helps them to recognize surfaces and to induce the production of the cell's own instant adhesive.

How bacteria recognize surfaces and adhere to them

Swimming Caulobacter bacteria have a rotating motor in their cell envelope with a long protrusion, the flagellum. The rotation of the flagellum enables the bacteria to move in liquids. Much to the surprise of the researchers, the rotor is also used as a mechano-sensing organ. Motor rotation is powered by proton flow into the cell via ion channels. When swimming cells touch surfaces, the motor is disturbed and the proton flux interrupted.

The researchers assume that this is the signal that sparks off the response: The bacterial cell now boosts the synthesis of a second messenger, which in turn stimulates the production of an adhesin that firmly anchors the bacteria on the surface within a few seconds.It is an impressive example of how rapidly and specifically bacteria can change their behavior when they encounter surfaces.

Better understanding of infectious diseases

Even though Caulobacter is a harmless environmental bacterium, the findings are highly relevant for the understanding of infectious diseases. What they discovered in Caulobacter also applies to important human pathogens. In order to better control and treat infections, it is mandatory to better understand processes that occur during these very first few seconds after surface contact.
by samriti67 at 10-26-2017, 10:20 PM
I want to know all. The entrance exam for further MSc. Bt study
by samriti67 at 10-26-2017, 10:18 PM
Im BSc. Biotechnology student I want to know that I'm eligible for gate paper.
by samriti67 at 10-26-2017, 10:17 PM
Will u plz tell me when will be the admit card come of iit jam2018
by lopamudra at 10-26-2017, 05:12 PM
Hello,I am at MSc biotechnology 3rd semester. I want to do project work on areas like molecular biology, immunology, cancer biology or disease related researchs. So I need some suggestions of some good institutes where I could work. Plzzz help me.
by manojit barman at 10-25-2017, 02:42 PM
Plz suggest me best coaching centre for bt in gate
by SunilNagpal at 10-24-2017, 06:45 PM
Today, my company conducted an initiative for employee health welfare, wherein a thorough physical and biochemical examination of each employee would be done.

There were a series of non-invasive tests conducted (parameters noted) for each employee (height, weight, body fat, visceral fat, BMI etc). I was more or less within 'normal' range, except for the blood pressure which was 103/72. And, when it came to blood tests, I fainted (literally blacked out) as soon as they pricked me for drawing blood. I didn't remember anything thereafter, until I woke up to the scene of whole staff surrounding me (I was made to lie down on the floor with my feet elevated). After waking up, I was back to normal (feeling little drained off energy though).

Upon some research I found out that it is Neurally Mediated Syncope (also referred to as  vasovagal syncope or a vasovagal response) wherein one's blood pressure drops abruptly, and brain doesn't receive required amount of oxygen to stay active. Triggers are often anxiety/ emotional distress,or even a sight of blood during the blood draw (for me I wasn't looking at the blood being drawn; anxiety/ stress is something one can't be conclusive about).

I hope there is nothing serious associated with it. Anyone experienced similar episode?
by Omi at 10-24-2017, 12:39 AM
Why does eukaryotic transcription require transcription factors where as prokaryotic transcription does not?
by pavithra. R at 10-23-2017, 10:20 PM
I have completed my b. Tech biotechnology. I wanted to pursue in genetic engineering and cell biology field. So should I study further or to work. Wat vil b the better choice to my career...
Can anyone suggest..
by deeba at 10-23-2017, 12:34 AM
MSA of four DNA sequences are given-
Shannon's entropy of the above alignment _________ ?
Can someone please solve and explain this ?
by shreyabiotech93 at 10-21-2017, 05:08 PM
Can anybody tell me how the strategy is for the interview? Any Bitp interviewed candidate here? Please help!!
by BETSY ANN at 10-21-2017, 01:24 AM
Can a b tech fresher with good academic records will get job even as a trainee in Research and development department of a company
by SunilNagpal at 10-20-2017, 11:00 AM
Three gems in Indian Scientific Research, the Indian Academies of Science, namely:

Indian Academy of Sciences (Bengaluru), Indian National Science Academy (New Delhi), and The National Academy of Sciences, India (Allahabad)

have released notification for recruiting Summer Research Fellows (both students as well as teachers) for summer of 2018. Share this with every student you know and every teacher you are familiar with, who must apply for these opportunities.

Following are the details:

A. General

1) Application should be submitted online in the prescribed format. Application link is available in the websites of the three Academies (;

2) Its mandatory to upload the marks sheets from class X till the last examination. Please have the scanned versions of mark sheets (in JPEG format), before starting to fill up the application.

3) Only one application per candidate will be considered. If more than one application is submitted, none of the applications will be considered.

4) Answers to columns indicated by an asterisk (*) are mandatory and must be filled.

5) The last date for receipt of online applications is 30 November 2017.

B. Eligibility criteria

For Students:

6a) Applicants should be studying in one of the following:

BS / BSc / BVSc / BPharm (II and III years only)

BE / BTech / BCA / BArch (II and III years only)

MS / MSc / MVSc / MPharm (I year only)

ME / MTech / MCA / MArch (I year only)(5-year integrated)

MS / MSc /MTech / MBBS (II, III, IV years only)

PharmD (III, IV years only)

(dual degree) BTech + MTech (II/,III,IV years only)

(dual degree) BE + MSc (II, III, IV years only)

(dual degree) BS + MS (II, III, IV years only)

Integrated PhD (I, II years only)MSc Tech (I, II years only)

For Teachers:

6b) Teachers must be teaching in a College/University.

7) The minimum percentage of average marks in core subjects only (i.e. excluding languages) from X std. up to post-graduation (whichever years completed) should be 65% or above for students.The minimum Percentage of average marks does not apply for teachers.

8) Students doing PhD are not eligible.

9) Applicants who have availed the Academies fellowship twice before are not eligible to apply.

C. Contents

10) The applicant should include a write-up (in about 150–250 words) as to the specific area of the applicant and indicate what he/she would like to learn and achieve through this fellowship. It can also include the specific experiment or theory that the applicant wants to work on but NOT a general description of the area. The write-up should not be a "copy and paste" job from any source.

11) Do not use special/scientific characters like Ø Ü the software will prevent you from uploading the application with such characters.

D. Enclosures to application

12) Both student and teacher applicants must upload scanned versions of mark sheets from class X till the last examination in JPEG Format (the size of each marks sheet should not exceed 700 kb).

13) Teacher applicants should upload their publications, if any. On selection, an authorization letter from the Principal/HoD that necessary permission/leave of absence will be granted should be sent by post to the Coordinator, SRFP 2018, Indian Academy of Sciences, Bengaluru 560 080. 

E. Other matters

14) Student applicants must upload the contact details of one of their present teachers or the Head of the Department (HoD). The Academy will get in touch with the teacher and obtain the recommendation letter.

15) All decisions regarding the selection of candidates will be at the sole discretion of the Academies. Any grievance or dispute concerning SRFP 2018 shall be addressed to the Academy whose decision thereon shall be final.

16) If a candidate is found at any point of time to have submitted false information, his/her fellowship will be cancelled, and he/she will be asked to pay back the fellowship amount/travel allowance etc. that has been paid to him/her. Further his/her guide and the Institution in which he/she is currently studying will be informed of the matter.

17) Without prejudice to 15) above, only the courts at Bengaluru city shall be the fora for seeking judicial remedy, if any, for any dispute or grievance.

F. Notes

18) Academy means Indian Academy of Sciences, Bengaluru. Academies mean Indian Academy of Sciences (Bengaluru), Indian National Science Academy (New Delhi), and The National Academy of Sciences, India (Allahabad). 

19) Guide means a person from the list of scientists/faculty approved by the Academies as guides.

20) All correspondence should be addressed to:
Mr C.S. Ravi Kumar
Coordinator, Summer Research Fellowship Programme
Indian Academy of Sciences
CV Raman Avenue, near Mekhri Circle
Bengaluru 560 080

Tel. (080) 2266 1207, 2266 1202, 2266 1221

Email:, website:
by Sunil Dhasmana at 10-20-2017, 05:43 AM
Hello everyone
Currently I'm pursuing Biotechnology 2nd year.
Currently i'm looking for summer internship programme.
by SunilNagpal at 10-18-2017, 01:07 PM
[Image: b5187fdce06444975f38aad90f3857ea.jpg]

I, like many others on internet, think it should be 38, what's your take and explanation?
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