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by Anuradha at 07-02-2018, 01:00 PM
Hello everyone. Myself Anuradha. Currently a second year graduation student. I am here to learn more about the subject and also keep myself updated about the latest discoveries and career aspects.
by binu at 07-01-2018, 05:08 PM
BIOINFORMATICS - 40 questions

1. Which is not part of Gene Ontology : Cellular function, Molecular Function, Biological process, Cellular localisation.
2. If 1 base pair=1 bit, what will be the size of human genome : 3 GB, 30 GB,....
3. Homology based question on 3 sequences using BLAST.
4. MUMmer related..
5. PAM is based on : closely related protein sequences,...
6. PSI BLAST sensitivity can be increased by : decreasing the E-value cutoff, reducing the number of iterations...
7. Progressive multiple alignment done by...
8. UniRef DB : filters data based on some threshold...
9. E-value depends on : size of query and database size,...
10. Important steps in docking : simulation and scoring,...
11. Gold,Autodock use : stochastic learning, machine learning,...
12. MEME best used for finding motifs : ungapped & variable length, gapped & fixed length, ungapped & fixed length,...
13. Neighbour Joining calculation is more complex than UPGMA method.
14. Phylogram given : find which are more related to each other..
15. Van der Waals force : due to transient dipoles,....
16. Hydrogen bond : cumulative effect is strong, stronger than electrostatic bond,...
17. STRING is not based on : literature mining, protein interactions,...
18. Molecular Dynamic Simulations energy given -2000 kcal\mol...  
19. What is the initial condition for MDS : equilibrium, energy,....
20. A+G=T+C, A+T=G+C, A\T=G\C, A\G=T\C.
21. PubMED extracts information based on MeSH terms.
22. Levinthal paradox : protein takes infinite time to fold,...
23. Which BLOSUM to use for highly divergent sequences : BLOSUM : 45,60,70,90
24. Ramachandran plot allowed regions fall in which quadrant : 4, 2&3, 1, 1&4.
25. Ramachandran paper about some triple helix structure...
26. A 100 amino acid chain contains 3, 20 polar amino acid group separated by 7-10 non polar amino acid : it will be alpha helix, beta strand, transmembrane
27. DSSP structure given : classify as : alpha\beta, alpha+beta, alpha, beta
28. Protein structure classified using : SCOP, CATH, FSSP, DALI.
29. Protein-dna interaction occurs by : major groove interacts with protein, phosphate bond,...
30. Entropy of 3 peptides increasing order : Val+Ala+Gly+Ala+Pro, Phe+Met+Ser+Ala+Val, Leu+Lys+Ser+Cys+Trp
31. PubChem does not contain this column : InChi, canonical SMILES, DrugBankId, IUPAC.
32. Prosite regular expression usage of {} and []
33. Regular expression AA[CD]S{F} meaning: find correct option...
34. Multi dimension substitution matrix disadvantages...
35. Concentration of receptor-ligand should be high for strong interaction.

Biology - 20 questions

1. Lac operon related.
2. ABO blood system represents..
3. Codominance related
4. Codominance related
5. Stability of DNA increases on adding : HCL,phenol,ethanol,alcohol.
6. Enantiomer related
7. Drone bee worker contains genetic material from : mother,mother+father,father,worker
8. Post translational modification binding site.
9. MicroRNA related.
10. Pea plant experiment
11. Southern blotting, Western blotting, northern blotting use
12. Prokaryotic gene expression
13. Codon bias refers to
14. Turners syndrome
15. Glycosidic linkage
16. Alpha beta promoter in some organism
17. Paralogs obtained by gene duplication
18. Collagen structure : triple helix stabilised by
19. arrange 3 peptides according to length: beta hairpin, alpha helix, 3-10 helix, beta strand

Physics - 5 questions

1. Find wavelength of electron : mass and charge of electron given, Plancks constant given, velocity=3*10^7 m\s.... 2.4 Angstrom,0.24 Angstrom,24 Angstrom
2. Velocity acceleration time equation in other form..
3. Potential Energy calculation for moving a unit mass of charge from 2 meter to 5 meter in presence of another charge...
4. Height to which a man can jump on Mars which has half radius of earth & one-tenth the mass of earth..1.7m, 2.4m, 5m.
5. Energy is inversely related to distance by : sixth power, square root, square, cube.

Chemistry - 5 questions

1. What will happen to pOH of a solution: when pH increases,..
2. Hybridisation states for : No2+, NO3-, NH4+ : (sp,sp2,sp3), (sp2,sp,sp3),...
3. Entropy increases in which order for 3 compounds : CH3-CH2-CH2-CH2-CH2-CH3, CH3-CH2-CH-CH-CH2-CH3, CH3-CH-CH-CH-CH-CH3...
4. Work done for 1 degree rise in temperature when pressure remains constant..
5. Lineweaver-Burke plot false statement..

Maths - 5 questions

1. Find limit of..
2. Probability when 3 coins tossed...output is even numbers and odd number...
3. Find the value of : 1^2 - 2^2 + 3^2 - 4^2 + ..... + 99^2 - 100^2 ?       -5050, -13050,...
4. Equation of parabola passing through 2 points tangent to a circle..
5. In which quadrant will e^x lie for all real x : 1&3, only 2, only 3...

Statistics - 5 questions

1. Binomial Distribution
2. Find mean and variance for single continuous variable..
3. Find mean and variance of..
4. Find conditional probability..
5. Independent event occurs when : P(A U B)=0, P(A\B)=P(B\A)...

Information Technology - 20 questions

1. Perl code: array contains 4 elements...what is $array[2]?...answer will be the 3rd element.
2. In C program : what will "ls file.txt" print?
3. In Unix : "ln -l" : will create soft link or hard link?
4. IDE fullform : Integrated Development Environment.
5. In Unix : Kernel is at the core.
6. Which command not present in SQL : Choose,Drop,Select,Update.
7. Find correct syntax of : Switch case, For loop, if condition, do while.
8. Operating System related
9. Command for listing contents..
10. Do while loop will : work atleast once, execute1 time less than condition, execute 1 time more than condition
11. File sequence contains : linear files...
12. Cluster computing allots dynamic memory to each system..
13. Parallel computing scaling done by..
14. Logical record in DB refers to : complete information of a single line
15. Parallel computing related..
16. Unix feature related..
17. Application Programming Interface related..
18. getch() command in which header file ? conio.h, stdio.h, io.h, iostream.h
19. Fork,Kill function
20. Compiler converts letters to binary code at one go.
by padmashree at 06-28-2018, 06:51 PM
I m Padmashree
A bsc graduate
I was planning for my higher education in abroad
Will taking up Msc biotechnology in UK be worth it?
by TheShoesOfLuci at 06-27-2018, 10:56 AM
Did I get your attention? Yes? Good, because I'm in distress.

I just got back from a nine-day biotech camp. To be clear, I signed up cause I was bored; I didn't actually think I would find it interesting. Well, I did. I had the time of my life over the past nine days, but now that they're over, I feel lost. I want to learn more, but I don't know where to start. I've been trying to read articles, journals, and whatnot on the topic, but every other word is some crazy science-y word that I've never seen before. On top of this, I'm planning to apply to volunteer at NIH (cause they have a program for high school students) and I don't wanna show up like "PCR stands for polymerase chain reaction, please accept me."

Does anyone have any tips for this desperate teen?

Anything helps. Thanks!
by Sudhira at 06-26-2018, 05:23 PM

I am new to Biotechnologyforums. This portal is doing a great job in supporting, motivating and also teaching biotechnology students like myself. I am Sudhira, currently done with B.Tech in biotechnology, preparing for GATE 2019, which is going to be organised by IIT-Madras. I have a few queries regarding that. How has GATE question asking pattern changed over years, especially Madras? I don't have a knack of giving such competitive exams, because negative marking freaks me out. When I leave questions, I get worried about missing out on my chances of getting the answer right. But this habit of mine, guessing an answer, backfires. How do I deal with such paranoia? Is there anything important I need to know about IIT-M setting the GATE-BT for 2019? I'm very much worried. Please help me out!
by sunil4 at 06-25-2018, 01:18 AM
This is sunil Bhasker living in new delhi and pursuing Biotechnology IInd year.
During this academic year, I've to pursue a summer training for 2 months.
I need your help.
I'd applied at
iiser-mohali, etc.
But got rejected as my institution is private and i want to gain a real research exposure
So, please HELP me
The internship program in my institution is mandatory and the allowed period of commencement of training is July-august.
by Bhaskarjyaa at 06-23-2018, 01:40 AM
Hello everyone,It is a good experience to be a part of of such an engaging forum.I want to know that whether LSRB sector of DRDO provide any training or internship opportunities for undergraduates?
by Purvi Tandel at 06-21-2018, 11:41 PM
Sir i cfompletedghjfjsh my 12 right now and qualified neet but my neet rank is nt that good that i can get admission in medical college which have less fees.So now i want to take admission in biotechnology so can u suggest which course in bio technology  should i do so tht i can get good salary after it.sir please also tell some colleges i should take which offers good placement .i would like u to suggest me good colleges in maharastra and gujarat  which gives good placement
by at 06-21-2018, 11:36 PM
Hi, i'm a bachelor student seeking for an explanation about genetically engineered Glycine max (soybean). 
During the project I was following, CRISPR-Cas9 mediated FAD2-2 gene deletion was performed on the plant seed. 
During sgDNA design though, it was done a blast of G.max FAD2-2 against Phsycomitrella patens FAD2-2. Since the similarities were high (99%) , the sgRNA was designed based on P. patiens sequence.
Why sgRNA is preferred to be designed based on P. patens FAD2-2 sequence?
by Sakthisree at 06-21-2018, 05:35 PM
Hello All.. 
I have completed by 3rd year in Btech Biotechnology and Biochemical engineering. I am interested in microbiology and related topics. I am confused about final year project topic. Please please suggest some topics.
by somdd1 at 06-16-2018, 03:10 AM
I have completed my BSc in biotechnology from Pune University and am willing to pursue MSc in the same, should I opt for Pune University or any deemed university like Bharti Vidyapeeth or Dr D Y Patil Institute? Will a degree from a deemed university spoil my chances for MS/PhD at a foreign university? Please help me out.
by natarajan at 06-14-2018, 07:18 PM
Are Btech Biotechnology students like me eligible for admission in any one of the five mtech courses offered by NIFTEM Haryana after clearing GATE XL/BT. Also I want to know whether Btech BIOtech students with valid score in GATE XL/BT eligible for admission in Mtech food engineering and technology offered by ICT Mumbai.  Does  a career in  the fields of food, agriculture,or environmental sciences have scope in India? what are the job prospects in such fields here?
by Sasmitha at 06-11-2018, 08:48 PM
Hello, I am doing my Bsc (hons) in Biotechnology. I am confused about what my Msc should be in to pursue Cancer research. Will it help to do my Msc in Biomedicine ?
by Jyoti at 06-10-2018, 06:49 AM
I am PhD biotechnology. I am searching for job. Please help me
by Kirthipriya Prakash at 06-09-2018, 11:41 PM
I completed third yr in Biotechnology. I have interest in microbiology. I am searching a title for my project. I had lot of confusion. Help me
by Shinu at 06-07-2018, 08:48 PM
Hi everyone!

I have a question about an electrophoresis of the GAPDH-fragment.

We made a master mix with the following:
- Puffer Y
- dNTPs
- Primer forward & reverse
- Taq Polymerase
- DNA template
- PCR water

Now I got the 1 band (x) which I don't know what it is. I thought of mutations probably or the remaining DNA-template that didn't get cut as it should. (Picture is attached)

Does anyone know what it might be?

Thanks in advance!!=)
by 6lackHEART at 06-07-2018, 02:00 PM
Hey everyone. 

I'm posting here in hopes someone on this forum can point me in the right direction.

I'm mostly interested in agricultural genetic modification. I have a very limited understanding of Cas9, guide RNA, and plasmids. My goal is to eventually be able to knockout certain genes, and replace them with a new sequence of my choosing in plants.

Does anyone have any books, threads, blogs, articles that a begginer can pick up on? I've looked around the net, and I can't seem to find very much footage of the process. That would help very much so. I apologize if I sound ignorant, it's probably because I am, and I need to change that haha. 

Thank you for taking the time to glean a little light on this subject for me.
by cbeganesh at 05-31-2018, 11:11 PM
Wanted to know if biology is mantatory in 12th to get admission into Btech bio technology course. I have taken Maths, Physics, chemistry and computer science in +1. Please advice. 

Thank you
by yamuna at 05-31-2018, 03:34 PM
Hello ppl,
I'm currently doing my 3 rd year biotech and I'm interested in doing MS. But considering my family background and financial needs, I've decided to work for a few years. But the pay scale after is very less which would not serve the purpose. Could someone pls tell that will psu recruit graduates through gate? And what's the probability of entering into psu after
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