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by Aisha Sheikh at 07-22-2018, 12:32 AM
Hello. I have recently completed my MSc in biotechnology . And now i am interested in working in food industry or maybe any applied biotechnology industry. So can anyone suggest me what should i do now?
by neena at 07-20-2018, 07:17 PM
I'm currently doing btech biotech 2nd year. What do I have to do if i have to take up Masters biostats abroad
by Muskan Gupta at 07-17-2018, 11:12 AM
Msc biotechnology, microbiology or biochemistry? Or should I go for msc in pharmaceutical chemistry and forensic sciences???
by kokila at 07-17-2018, 03:12 AM
Hii.. Everyone i have joined in bit for the course b.Tech biotechnology. I need your help regarding the reference books to be preferred for studying.
by Bilal671 at 07-16-2018, 07:28 AM
Summary: Ongoing exploration has uncovered that develop cells can be reinvented into re-deployable foundational microorganisms without coordinate hereditary alteration – by binding them to a characterized geometric space for a broadened timeframe.

Immature microorganisms are the clean slate on which every specific cell in our bodies are manufactured and they are the establishment for each organ and tissue in the body.
Ongoing exploration drove by Professor G.V. Shivashankar of the Mechanobiology Institute (MBI) at the National University of Singapore (NUS) and the FIRC Institute of Molecular Oncology (IFOM) in Italy, has uncovered that develop cells can be reconstructed into re-deployable immature microorganisms without coordinate hereditary alteration – by limiting them to a characterized geometric space for an expanded timeframe.

“Our achievement discoveries will introduce another age of undifferentiated organism innovations for tissue designing and regenerative solution that may beat the negative impacts of genomic control,” said Prof Shivashankar.

Turning back the cellular clock

It has been over 10 years since researchers initially demonstrated that developing cells can be reconstructed in the lab to wind up pluripotent undeveloped cells that are fit for being created into any cell compose in the body. In those early examinations, specialists hereditarily adjusted develop cells by presenting outer elements that reset the genomic projects of the cells, basically making things the same as before and returning them to an undifferentiated or unspecialized state. The resultant lab-made cells, known as prompted pluripotent undifferentiated cells (iPSCs) would then be able to be customized into various cell composes for use in tissue repair, medicate disclosure and even to develop new organs for transplant. Critically, these phones should not be collected from incipient organisms.

Be that as it may, a noteworthy impediment is a propensity for any specific cell that is produced from iPSCs, to shape tumors subsequent to being brought into the body. To comprehend why this happened, analysts turned their concentration to seeing how foundational microorganism separation and development is controlled in the body, and specifically, how cells normally return to a juvenile immature microorganism like state or change over to another phone write, amid improvement, or in tissue support.

Prof Shivashankar’s group of scientists has demonstrated that develop cells can be reinvented, in vitro, into pluripotent foundational microorganisms without hereditarily altering the developing cells, just by binding the phones to a characterized region for development.

Resetting mature cells

At the point when fibroblast cells (a kind of develop cell found in connective tissue, for example, ligaments and tendons) were kept to rectangular zones, they immediately accepted the state of the substrate (the surface or medium that the cells are appended to). In light of past work from the Shivashankar lab, this showed the phones were estimating and reacting to the physical properties of their condition, and passing on this data to the core where DNA bundling and genome projects would adjust in like manner.

The group developed the cells more than 10 days until the point that they shaped circular bunches of cells. Hereditary examination of the cells inside these groups uncovered that particular attributes of chromatin (the consolidated type of bundled DNA) typically connected with developing fibroblasts were lost by the 6th day. By the tenth day, the cells communicated qualities regularly connected with embryonic immature microorganisms and iPSCs. The specialists have now discovered that by binding the develop cells for an expanded timeframe, develop fibroblasts can be transformed into pluripotent undifferentiated organisms.

To affirm that the fibroblasts had without a doubt been reconstructed into undeveloped cells, the analysts at that point coordinated their development, with high effectiveness, into two diverse specific cell writes. A few cells were additionally coordinated once more into fibroblasts.

Stem cell technologies redefined

The physical parameters utilized as a part of the investigation are intelligent of the transient geometric imperatives that cells can be presented to in the body. For instance, amid improvement, the foundation of geometric examples and specialties are fundamental in the development of utilitarian tissues and organs. Essentially, when tissue is harmed, either through damage or malady, cells will encounter sudden adjustments to their condition. For each situation, develop cells may return to a pluripotent, undeveloped cell-like state, before being redeployed as particular cells for the repair or support of the tissue.

“While it is settled that restricting foundational microorganisms to characterized geometric examples and substrate properties can coordinate their separation into particular cells, this investigation appears out of the blue that mechanical prompts can reset the genomic projects of developing cells and return them to a pluripotent state,” Prof Shivashankar clarified.
He included, “The utilization of geometric requirements to reprogramme develop cells may better mirror the procedure happening normally inside the body. All the more vitally, our discoveries enable analysts to produce undifferentiated organisms from developing cells with high productivity and without hereditarily adjusting them.”
by kiruthika at 07-05-2018, 03:09 AM
HAI ALL GUIDERS(sir or mam),I am a biotechnology final year student .please help me in choosing project .iam so interest in pharma.
and please give me solution,how the enzyme is isolated from fruits  or vegtables
by Anuradha at 07-02-2018, 01:00 PM
Hello everyone. Myself Anuradha. Currently a second year graduation student. I am here to learn more about the subject and also keep myself updated about the latest discoveries and career aspects.
by binu at 07-01-2018, 05:08 PM
BIOINFORMATICS - 40 questions

1. Which is not part of Gene Ontology : Cellular function, Molecular Function, Biological process, Cellular localisation.
2. If 1 base pair=1 bit, what will be the size of human genome : 3 GB, 30 GB,....
3. Homology based question on 3 sequences using BLAST.
4. MUMmer related..
5. PAM is based on : closely related protein sequences,...
6. PSI BLAST sensitivity can be increased by : decreasing the E-value cutoff, reducing the number of iterations...
7. Progressive multiple alignment done by...
8. UniRef DB : filters data based on some threshold...
9. E-value depends on : size of query and database size,...
10. Important steps in docking : simulation and scoring,...
11. Gold,Autodock use : stochastic learning, machine learning,...
12. MEME best used for finding motifs : ungapped & variable length, gapped & fixed length, ungapped & fixed length,...
13. Neighbour Joining calculation is more complex than UPGMA method.
14. Phylogram given : find which are more related to each other..
15. Van der Waals force : due to transient dipoles,....
16. Hydrogen bond : cumulative effect is strong, stronger than electrostatic bond,...
17. STRING is not based on : literature mining, protein interactions,...
18. Molecular Dynamic Simulations energy given -2000 kcal\mol...  
19. What is the initial condition for MDS : equilibrium, energy,....
20. A+G=T+C, A+T=G+C, A\T=G\C, A\G=T\C.
21. PubMED extracts information based on MeSH terms.
22. Levinthal paradox : protein takes infinite time to fold,...
23. Which BLOSUM to use for highly divergent sequences : BLOSUM : 45,60,70,90
24. Ramachandran plot allowed regions fall in which quadrant : 4, 2&3, 1, 1&4.
25. Ramachandran paper about some triple helix structure...
26. A 100 amino acid chain contains 3, 20 polar amino acid group separated by 7-10 non polar amino acid : it will be alpha helix, beta strand, transmembrane
27. DSSP structure given : classify as : alpha\beta, alpha+beta, alpha, beta
28. Protein structure classified using : SCOP, CATH, FSSP, DALI.
29. Protein-dna interaction occurs by : major groove interacts with protein, phosphate bond,...
30. Entropy of 3 peptides increasing order : Val+Ala+Gly+Ala+Pro, Phe+Met+Ser+Ala+Val, Leu+Lys+Ser+Cys+Trp
31. PubChem does not contain this column : InChi, canonical SMILES, DrugBankId, IUPAC.
32. Prosite regular expression usage of {} and []
33. Regular expression AA[CD]S{F} meaning: find correct option...
34. Multi dimension substitution matrix disadvantages...
35. Concentration of receptor-ligand should be high for strong interaction.

Biology - 20 questions

1. Lac operon related.
2. ABO blood system represents..
3. Codominance related
4. Codominance related
5. Stability of DNA increases on adding : HCL,phenol,ethanol,alcohol.
6. Enantiomer related
7. Drone bee worker contains genetic material from : mother,mother+father,father,worker
8. Post translational modification binding site.
9. MicroRNA related.
10. Pea plant experiment
11. Southern blotting, Western blotting, northern blotting use
12. Prokaryotic gene expression
13. Codon bias refers to
14. Turners syndrome
15. Glycosidic linkage
16. Alpha beta promoter in some organism
17. Paralogs obtained by gene duplication
18. Collagen structure : triple helix stabilised by
19. arrange 3 peptides according to length: beta hairpin, alpha helix, 3-10 helix, beta strand

Physics - 5 questions

1. Find wavelength of electron : mass and charge of electron given, Plancks constant given, velocity=3*10^7 m\s.... 2.4 Angstrom,0.24 Angstrom,24 Angstrom
2. Velocity acceleration time equation in other form..
3. Potential Energy calculation for moving a unit mass of charge from 2 meter to 5 meter in presence of another charge...
4. Height to which a man can jump on Mars which has half radius of earth & one-tenth the mass of earth..1.7m, 2.4m, 5m.
5. Energy is inversely related to distance by : sixth power, square root, square, cube.

Chemistry - 5 questions

1. What will happen to pOH of a solution: when pH increases,..
2. Hybridisation states for : No2+, NO3-, NH4+ : (sp,sp2,sp3), (sp2,sp,sp3),...
3. Entropy increases in which order for 3 compounds : CH3-CH2-CH2-CH2-CH2-CH3, CH3-CH2-CH-CH-CH2-CH3, CH3-CH-CH-CH-CH-CH3...
4. Work done for 1 degree rise in temperature when pressure remains constant..
5. Lineweaver-Burke plot false statement..

Maths - 5 questions

1. Find limit of..
2. Probability when 3 coins tossed...output is even numbers and odd number...
3. Find the value of : 1^2 - 2^2 + 3^2 - 4^2 + ..... + 99^2 - 100^2 ?       -5050, -13050,...
4. Equation of parabola passing through 2 points tangent to a circle..
5. In which quadrant will e^x lie for all real x : 1&3, only 2, only 3...

Statistics - 5 questions

1. Binomial Distribution
2. Find mean and variance for single continuous variable..
3. Find mean and variance of..
4. Find conditional probability..
5. Independent event occurs when : P(A U B)=0, P(A\B)=P(B\A)...

Information Technology - 20 questions

1. Perl code: array contains 4 elements...what is $array[2]?...answer will be the 3rd element.
2. In C program : what will "ls file.txt" print?
3. In Unix : "ln -l" : will create soft link or hard link?
4. IDE fullform : Integrated Development Environment.
5. In Unix : Kernel is at the core.
6. Which command not present in SQL : Choose,Drop,Select,Update.
7. Find correct syntax of : Switch case, For loop, if condition, do while.
8. Operating System related
9. Command for listing contents..
10. Do while loop will : work atleast once, execute1 time less than condition, execute 1 time more than condition
11. File sequence contains : linear files...
12. Cluster computing allots dynamic memory to each system..
13. Parallel computing scaling done by..
14. Logical record in DB refers to : complete information of a single line
15. Parallel computing related..
16. Unix feature related..
17. Application Programming Interface related..
18. getch() command in which header file ? conio.h, stdio.h, io.h, iostream.h
19. Fork,Kill function
20. Compiler converts letters to binary code at one go.
by padmashree at 06-28-2018, 06:51 PM
I m Padmashree
A bsc graduate
I was planning for my higher education in abroad
Will taking up Msc biotechnology in UK be worth it?
by TheShoesOfLuci at 06-27-2018, 10:56 AM
Did I get your attention? Yes? Good, because I'm in distress.

I just got back from a nine-day biotech camp. To be clear, I signed up cause I was bored; I didn't actually think I would find it interesting. Well, I did. I had the time of my life over the past nine days, but now that they're over, I feel lost. I want to learn more, but I don't know where to start. I've been trying to read articles, journals, and whatnot on the topic, but every other word is some crazy science-y word that I've never seen before. On top of this, I'm planning to apply to volunteer at NIH (cause they have a program for high school students) and I don't wanna show up like "PCR stands for polymerase chain reaction, please accept me."

Does anyone have any tips for this desperate teen?

Anything helps. Thanks!
by Sudhira at 06-26-2018, 05:23 PM

I am new to Biotechnologyforums. This portal is doing a great job in supporting, motivating and also teaching biotechnology students like myself. I am Sudhira, currently done with B.Tech in biotechnology, preparing for GATE 2019, which is going to be organised by IIT-Madras. I have a few queries regarding that. How has GATE question asking pattern changed over years, especially Madras? I don't have a knack of giving such competitive exams, because negative marking freaks me out. When I leave questions, I get worried about missing out on my chances of getting the answer right. But this habit of mine, guessing an answer, backfires. How do I deal with such paranoia? Is there anything important I need to know about IIT-M setting the GATE-BT for 2019? I'm very much worried. Please help me out!
by sunil4 at 06-25-2018, 01:18 AM
This is sunil Bhasker living in new delhi and pursuing Biotechnology IInd year.
During this academic year, I've to pursue a summer training for 2 months.
I need your help.
I'd applied at
iiser-mohali, etc.
But got rejected as my institution is private and i want to gain a real research exposure
So, please HELP me
The internship program in my institution is mandatory and the allowed period of commencement of training is July-august.
by Bhaskarjyaa at 06-23-2018, 01:40 AM
Hello everyone,It is a good experience to be a part of of such an engaging forum.I want to know that whether LSRB sector of DRDO provide any training or internship opportunities for undergraduates?
by Purvi Tandel at 06-21-2018, 11:41 PM
Sir i cfompletedghjfjsh my 12 right now and qualified neet but my neet rank is nt that good that i can get admission in medical college which have less fees.So now i want to take admission in biotechnology so can u suggest which course in bio technology  should i do so tht i can get good salary after it.sir please also tell some colleges i should take which offers good placement .i would like u to suggest me good colleges in maharastra and gujarat  which gives good placement
by at 06-21-2018, 11:36 PM
Hi, i'm a bachelor student seeking for an explanation about genetically engineered Glycine max (soybean). 
During the project I was following, CRISPR-Cas9 mediated FAD2-2 gene deletion was performed on the plant seed. 
During sgDNA design though, it was done a blast of G.max FAD2-2 against Phsycomitrella patens FAD2-2. Since the similarities were high (99%) , the sgRNA was designed based on P. patiens sequence.
Why sgRNA is preferred to be designed based on P. patens FAD2-2 sequence?
by Sakthisree at 06-21-2018, 05:35 PM
Hello All.. 
I have completed by 3rd year in Btech Biotechnology and Biochemical engineering. I am interested in microbiology and related topics. I am confused about final year project topic. Please please suggest some topics.
by somdd1 at 06-16-2018, 03:10 AM
I have completed my BSc in biotechnology from Pune University and am willing to pursue MSc in the same, should I opt for Pune University or any deemed university like Bharti Vidyapeeth or Dr D Y Patil Institute? Will a degree from a deemed university spoil my chances for MS/PhD at a foreign university? Please help me out.
by natarajan at 06-14-2018, 07:18 PM
Are Btech Biotechnology students like me eligible for admission in any one of the five mtech courses offered by NIFTEM Haryana after clearing GATE XL/BT. Also I want to know whether Btech BIOtech students with valid score in GATE XL/BT eligible for admission in Mtech food engineering and technology offered by ICT Mumbai.  Does  a career in  the fields of food, agriculture,or environmental sciences have scope in India? what are the job prospects in such fields here?
by Sasmitha at 06-11-2018, 08:48 PM
Hello, I am doing my Bsc (hons) in Biotechnology. I am confused about what my Msc should be in to pursue Cancer research. Will it help to do my Msc in Biomedicine ?
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