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Application and Importance of Biotechnology
#1
Since the DNA of all living organisms has the same structure either in terms of people, plants, animals or micro-organisms, some of its parts (genes) can be cut and transported from the cells of an organism to another cell without much trouble. New DNA is called recombinant DNA, and these manipulations are based on biotechnological processes.

In this way it is possible to insert individual genes or groups of genes in different receptors and thereby enhance the features or lead to the production of new proteins and the development of entirely new traits.

Getting Recombinant DNA

Some of these procedures has opened a number of possibilities and applications in various fields. Similar methods are applied in the production of the controversial genetically modified foods, with inserting of foreign genes performed in order to improve product quality, increase resistance to disease and parasites, and many other features.

Various biotechnological methods are also used in the production of new vaccines in veterinary medicine, as well as the measures of biological control of weeds and pests.
Certainly the most promising applications of biotechnological advances is in medicine where are the greatest investments and expectations. Biomedicine is the application data and the results obtained in biotechnological research in medicine with the goal of getting new drugs and the development of new therapies that unlike the current will be directly designed in accordance with the genetic code of the individual.

Knowledge of the genetic code will help much more quickly and easily isolate individual genes and their protein, and to determine their roles. The results should first be felt in the diagnosis. That means it will be possible to diagnose the disease early while the drugs be adapted to each individual, and this way they will be more accurate and more effective. "We will develop a different drug, although we can not expect that to happen very quickly. It willl be very difficult to correct gene, but over the next decade we expect that it will become possible," said dr. John Sulston, a British researcher in the Human Genome Project.
Maps genes should help in the detection of hereditary disorders, prevention of disease and treatment. Special attention is given to the development of gene therapy in which defects caused by mutations in a gene, tries to correct by entering the correct gene in the organism.

Knowledge of the genome will allow scientists around the world to explore the genetic bases of diseases involving disruption of several genes, such as diabetes, cancer and Alzheimer's disease.

Genome Research

This research includes systematic investigation of the genome, or complete chromosome sets of a particular organism. At present such research includes the creation and use of large databases, expensive and sophisticated laboratory equipment and also heavily invested in the research.
There are two aspects of genome research - structural and functional.

Structural testing is the determination of DNA sequences and gene mapping.

Functional testing is focused on the functional activities of established genetic sequences. How to be coming to an end of reading the human genome, and this way focus will be shifted from structural to functional aspects of the research, with the aim of obtaining specific results applicable in practice.

Protein Research

Identification of all the proteins in the cells and analysis of their interactions are currently one of the most attractive fields in the biotechnology industry, both in large companies and in companies in the establishment.
Proteome name was established in 1994 when it was Mark Willkins doctoral student at the University of Sydney, first used to describe the set of all human proteins. Proteins are the "worker" cells and potential targets for drugs. However, identification and sequencing of the gene does not currently provide sufficient information for the development of new therapies.

There was developed a new field of proteomics research that deals with research of protein structure and their interrelationships. This area is becoming more attractive for investment. Only from June 2000 to October 2001, more than $ 700 million investor 'capital is invested in companies involved in examining the proteome.
After the publication of the first complete analysis of the human genome biomedical research will be almost completely transferred from genomics on proteomics as a key technology to transform information into pharmaceutical products. The need to improve the speed and efficiency of finding new drugs will be the primary guiding principle in these investigations. Current methods of gradual and chemical methods have been optimized long time (an average of 10-12 years to detect new drug) and expensive (an average of 500-750 million U.S. dollars). There is also a high percentage of failure in clinical trials because of toxicity or low efficacy of potential new drugs, resulting in a growing interest in bio-markers are suitable for use in therapeutic planning and design personalized medicines.

For proteomic industry is projected to rise from 565 million U.S. dollars in 2001 to over 3.3 billion U.S. dollars in 2008. This represents an average annual growth rate of 40% and it is expected that demand for proteomic products will be great during this time period. It is expected that the growth rate in this segment of the market will begin to decline until after 2008, when the next generation proteomic product is brought to market

Based on information obtained in the genomic and proteomic research over the next ten years is expected to be significant progress in the pharmaceutical industry. Determining targets for drugs within proteomic research would lead to a significant improvement and creation of such drugs to block exactly those proteins that cause certain diseases. In addition to improvements in laboratory tests are also expected to accelerate the procedure and performance of new drugs on the market.
Since this process is currently very slow and expensive, pharmaceutical companies would greatly reduce costs. Hundreds of millions of dollars are spent annually on research and development of new drugs. In fact only one of the 1000 experimental compounds pass preclinical testing, and one of five clinically tested drugs coming on the market.

Getting concrete information from the genetic code and discover the cellular mechanisms that lead to the formation of certain pathological conditions or disease outbreaks (especially when it comes to genetic disease), it could be a theoretical basis for the design of new, highly specific drugs that were in line with genetic code of the individual, and therefore much more effective than existing drugs. There are forecasts that sales of such drugs on the market could increase the revenues of pharmaceutical companies up to 50 percent or more.
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#2
Biotechnology is an area of science that is concerned with the industrialized production of biopharmaceuticals and biological utilization of genetically modified microbes. And also the genetic constitution of animals and plants can be altered either by inserting novel useful genes or by removing unwanted genes. Modern biotechnology is changing the manner of growing plants and animals aiming to offer opportunities in improving nutritional content, product quality and economic value. Biotechnology has four most important areas of application such as health care, agriculture, industrial processes (biodegradable plastics, enzymes and bio-fuels) and wildlife management and conservation.

The industry of biotechnology has coined a number of terms that are utilized to refer to particular areas in which biotechnology already plays an important role.

Blue Biotechnology is the phrase used to describe various applications of biotechnology in marine environments and other aquatic (water based) phenomena.

Green Biotechnology refers to biotechnological applications in the area of agriculture and environment. An instance of biotechnology in agriculture is the genetic engineering of crops. Genetically modified or GM crops are capable of producing pesticides that resist insect attacks, reducing the environment damaging chemical pesticides which is a topic of debate. Another instance of biotechnological application in agriculture is the crafting of transgenic plants that are capable of growing in the presence or absence of particular chemicals.

Red Biotechnology is the phrase that refers to the medical applications of biotechnology. This area includes engineering organisms to generate antibiotics, manipulation of genetic code to produce cells utilized in gene therapy and so on. There are several ethical issues regarding genetic modification, particularly with human genes.

Bioinformatics is an interdisciplinary area which attempts to find solutions to biological problems utilizing sophisticated and much studied computational methodologies. As a result huge amounts of biological data can be organised very swiftly for analysis which is aided by computing techniques.



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#3
Biotechnology is widely used in pharmacy to create more efficient and less expensive drugs. Recombinant DNA technology is used for production of specific enzymes, which enhance the rate of production of particular range of antibodies in the organism.
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