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Genetic engineering is the best solution of cancer prevention
Uncontrolled growth of a group of cells is called tumor. Tumor turns into cancer at a severe stage. The study of cancer detection and prevention is called oncology. Cancer is now the most devastating disease in the world. About 13% human deaths are caused due to cancer. The most serious news is that no effective prevention is still discovered for cancer treatment. So cancer is the emissary of death to everybody. Cancer may develop in anybody of any age.

Abnormalities of the genetic materials are the only known cause of cancer. Errors in DNA replication and heritability of the genetic diseases are the cause of cancer during birth stage. Excessive ultraviolet radiation, any harmful infectious agents, tobacco smokes or chemicals are responsible for the abnormalities of genetic materials. Genes which promote cancer are called oncogenes. They are activated in cancer cells. Tumor suppressive genes are not activated in the cancer cells. For that reason programmed cell death and hyper active division and growth of cells cannot be prevented. Inaccurate DNA replication, irregular cell cycle, damaging the immune system are the major symptoms of cancer.

There are actually three types of symptoms of cancer. They are local symptoms, systematic symptoms and symptoms of metastasis. Pain, bleeding, ulceration and swelling are the local symptoms. Enlarged lymph nodes enlarged liver, bone pain and fracture and other neurological disturbance are the symptoms of metastasis. Poor appetite, weight loss, fatigue, excessive sweating, hormonal changes and anemia are the systematic symptoms. They are considered as serious stage symptoms of cancer.

The errors which are responsible for the cancer are amplified autonomously in the exponential rate. Mutation occurring in the error correcting machinery makes it nonfunctional. Errors in the signaling system cause error message transfer. Neoplastic cells are developed. Another mutation causes the immortal cancer cells and those cells disrupt healthy normal cells. That means cancer cells are expanding by creating many errors sequentially just like a chain reaction. If 10000 cancer cells are recognized and damaged but only 10 cancer cells are left undamaged, those 10 cells will replicate again and again to create cancer.

Prevention is better than cure. But there is no effective prevention of cancer. Surgery, radiotherapy and chemotherapy are some procedure to cure cancer. But they are not harmless and secured. Genetic engineering may be the latest solution of cancer prevention. Some research has been done to discover new path of cancer prevention through genetic engineering. Genetic changes caused by events such as mutation and agents such as viruses are recognized for research. Damaged genes are trying to recover in the prevention of cancer. If the genetic factors and processes which are responsible for cancer can be controlled in the primary stage, the further progression of cancer will be controlled. Those works must be done by genetic engineering. This genetic engineering ensures the protection of cancer cells from further mutation. Genetic engineering is done if cancer is affected by genetic problems. If carcinogens create cancer then preventive steps should be taken against carcinogens. Genetic engineering may be the best solution for cancer. But this matter is still under research. Our expectation may be fulfilled in the future.
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Genetic engineering involves introducing a segment of DNA into an organism where this piece of DNA is not normally present. This piece of DNA usually contains a gene, that in turn encodes a protein. The properties of this protein vary widely: certain proteins confer insect resistance, others cause increased growth rates, yet others cause herbicide tolerance,
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Cancer is nothing but the shift in the control mechanisms that govern cell survival, proliferation, and differentiation. These changes occur basically in DNA and cause the uncontrolled cell divisions and cause a tumor formation. Tumor is non cancerous and non moving one or malignant tumor (cancerous), which can spread from one part to another part in the body. Cancer can be categorized as Carcinoma – occurs in skin, Sarcoma- occurs in bone, connective tissue, Leukemia- in blood or blood forming tissue, Lymphoma & myeloma- in immune system, and CNS cancer- in brain or spinal cord. Cancer may occur by any mean which causes the mutation in DNA of cell. Mutation may occur by environmental exposure, due to hereditary, due to radiation, chemical exposure, age, nutrition, infection, damage to cell etc. all may cause cancer. If DNA repairs system not able to correct the same then mutation results in to cancer.
Treatment to the cancer is now a day’s very much possible with the development of technology and research in genetic engineering. With the help of Genetic engineering, gene therapy, knowledge of cell biology, immunology, and genetics along with biotechnology in combine are working to find out the solutions for many types of cancer. Stopping the expression of DNA in cancer cell, or correcting the mutation in cancer cell with gene therapy, using Aptamers to find the tumor cell or group of cell which are mainly involve in cancer, using the immunity of patient to kill the cell by enhancing the immunity etc are the new ways being developed along with new discoveries in biotechnology. Also Nanotechnology and Genetics along with biotechnology are used to deliver the drug specifically at the cancer site which will kill the cell without damage to the other organs or cells which are non-cancerous. A special genetically engineered cell which kills the targeted tumor cells in the body without any side effect this employ 3D imaging technology like MRI, SCANS etc. Many more methods are now being developed to treat the cancer with help of Genetic Engineering, Nanotechnology, Cell biology, Immunology and Enzymology !
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Cancer can be treated through gene therapy. In the last couple of the years, gene therapy has been successfully carried out against leukemia and many other serious types of cancer.

Doctors hold the view that we can transform blood cells into soldiers combating against this chronic disease. It is said that 120 patients with different types of bone marrow and blood cancers have been experimented and all of them had a positive result. Yes, these patients had been dealt by six different research groups and the people had the cancer before the experience are completely normal now.

Dr. Janis Abkowitz said that “You can take a cell of the patient and engineer it as a defender against these serious diseases”. On the other hand, another study has been recently conducted and all the 4 adults who had bone marrow transplantation, have been successfully treated. Yes, they are now cancer free patients.

Not only this, Emily Whitehead the 8 years old girl had last stage of cancer and all the doctors pronounced her early death, but after the gene therapy there had been no prevalence of cancer in her body. Exactly, she was the first person to be experimented for gene therapy.

Basically, this treatment is done through filtering patients' blood by removing millions of WTCs known as T-cells and changing them in the laboratory for instilling a gene having capability of targeting cancer. After this, this is returned in the body of the patient through infusion in three days. Ultimately, this one gene is transformed into army which consistently fight against the cancer.

It is necessary to mention that labs charge $25,000 for diagnosing each patient and most of the cases are those which have usually least chances to survive. The Penn doctors said that this treatment emerges as a glamor of hope for the patients and it must be diagnosed in affordable rates.
Sasa Milosevic
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