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by Jessica at 06-29-2010, 10:54 AM
GM food or Genetically Modified foods are those types of food which are genetically modified to get the desirable traits in that food. The gene introduced here is by genetic engineering and with great safety this is done. Although mutation breeding gives modified crops, this genetic engineered food is more precise than that. In early 1990 the journey of GM food started and from then on it is prevailing in many parts of the world.

Corn, Soybean and canola are the most common example of GM food and other kind of animal products are also developed these days to meet the demand of the 21st century. In 2006 the scientist engineered pig for producing omega-3 fatty acid that was done by the roundworm gene. Another example is the genetic engineered pigs that can absorb phosphorus of plant more effectively.

Genetically modified crops are produced through the deletion or insertion gene. Certain genes are responsible for expressing the specific traits and if we can insert our desired gene on the gene of that animal we can get desired traits. Horizontal gene transfer, a term used here which means to insert new gene in any animal or plant. This is done by the penetration of exogenous DNA for our desired reason. By using single syringe artificially or by a fired gun and is inserted to the intended host. Some vectors are used here to transfer gene e.g. Agrobacterium bacterium is commonly used.

The main criteria of GM food are to get more nutrients or the yield of GM plants or animals are more than the traditional plants or animal. Most of the times they don't need not to use more pesticide and so it provides healthier food tor us. So for a developing country GM crops and subsequently GM foods are needed to ensure food safety. The developed countries have taken initiative to produce genetically engineered products for example America took huge initiative from 1996 for increasing their production of cotton, corn and soybean.

The scientists are thinking to produce such kind of GM foods that will meet up not only our food demand but also it will automatically produce antibiotic inside it as well as it will ensure vaccine for the infectious disease like Cancer and HIV. With the advent of Biotechnology, Scientists have developed Golden rice which is enriched with Vitamin A and can solve the problem of Vitamin A. Biotechnology has developed technology that has surpassed the production of rice in the saline prone area. It has introduced salt tolerant variety as well as drought tolerant and so on.

With the advent of BT cotton the producer of cotton has overcome the problem associated with the pest and other problem. More GM products are coming in the upcoming days that will solve the existing problem of crops and animal. These days the scientist have invented such kind of GM foods that can compromise allergen problem. So the food that is risky for the allergy prone people would be modified through genetic engineering and the allergy prone people can take it easily and without any hesitation. So GM food is a must to overcome the existing problem of food.
by Jessica at 06-29-2010, 10:52 AM
Now a day's, countries all around the world are facing striking health challenges that include congestive heart failure and heart attacks. Though there are many breakthroughs in cardiovascular medicine and a successful approach to prevent or limit cardiovascular disease, repairing of damaged cell was a challenge. From a recent research it has found that adult and embryonic stem cells may be able to replace damaged heart muscle cells and establish new blood vessels to supply them.

For obtaining stem cells which is known as amniotic membrane-derived mesenchymal (undifferentiated) cells (hAMCs), the investigators in Japan used amniotic membrane where an embryo develops. It is the inner lining of the sac. According to Shunichiro Miyoshi, M.D., Ph.D., co-author of the study, the amniotic membrane is used as medical waste and it is used when delivery is completed.

In laboratory studies-

* Heart muscle cells were transformed by hAMCs and 33% beating spontaneously.
* When hAMCs was injected after two weeks of a heart attack rat hearts showed 34%-39% improvement while untreated hearts failed in function
* When rat heart was injected with hAMCs after heart attack, marked area of damaged hear decreased 13%-18%.
* hAMCs were survived more than four weeks in the rat heart without being rejected by the recipient’s immune system, even without immunosuppressive medication.

According to Miyoshi, it is preferable to convert the ability of hAMCs into heart cell than mesenchymal cells derived from bone marrow or fat. As amniotic sac is a boundary between a developing fetus and a woman the implanted cells were not rejected. The immune system does not treat it as a foreign tissue because the amniotic membrane between them does not produce the proteins that immune systems use to identify foreign tissue. So it is clear that needed if hAMCs are used, the usual tissue-type matching (HLA typing) needed prior to transplantation would not be needed. And after transplantation no drugs for suppressing immune system is needed. Some findings also suggest that differentiation into different cells of various organs can be done by hAMCs.

According to Miyoshi, if we have to create a cell bank system to cover every HLA type, we will need to store a great amount of cells, many of which will never be used. But hAMCs do not require such type of system, so it is more cheap and preferable to all patients.

Some researchers who are working their experiments in larger animals and working to boost the number of heart cells generated by the hAMCs said that it need to do much work before testing hAMCs in humans.

Maritza E. Mayorga and Dr. Marc S. Penn of the Cleveland Clinic, wrote in an editorial in the journal that the investigators need to be congratulated for their careful work that has brought forward a cell type that may offer the real potential for off-the-shelf cardiac myocyte [muscle cell]-based therapy. So from overall discussion it is evident that stem cell therapy can be the best solution for damaged portion of your body. Further research is needed and then we will not be dependent upon the fate.
by Jessica at 06-29-2010, 10:51 AM
Biofertilizer is one of the best modern tools for agriculture. It is a gift of our modern agricultural science. Biofertilizers are applied in the agricultural field as a replacement to our conventional fertilizers. Conventional fertilizers contain compost; household wastes and green manure. Those are not as effective as chemical fertilizers. So farmers often try to use chemical fertilizers in the field for crop development. But obviously the chemical fertilizers are not environment friendly. They are responsible for water, air and soil pollution and can spread cancer causing agents. Moreover, they may destroy the fertility of the soil in a long run. Scientists have developed Biofertilizers to prevent pollution and to make this world healthy for everybody in a natural way.

Biofertilizer contains microorganisms which promote the adequate supply of nutrients to the host plants and ensure their proper development of growth and regulation in their physiology. Living microorganisms are used in the preparation of Biofertilizers. Only those microorganisms are used which have specific functions to enhance plant growth and reproduction.

There are different types of microorganisms which are used in the biofertilizers. Some are capable of nitrogen fixation such as Azotobacter, Blue green algae Rhizobium and Azospirillum. Rhizobium is used to increase the capacity of nitrogen fixation in the leguminous plants. Azotobacter are used as Biofertilizers for the development of various vegetable plants such as mustard, maize, Wheat, cotton etc. Azospirillum is applied in the millets, sorghum, sugarcane, maize and wheat field. Nostoc, Tolypothrix, Anabaena, and Aulosira are known as blue green algae. Anabaena and Azolla fix atmospheric nitrogen and enrich the soil fertility.

Phosphate solublizing bacteria are also developed as Biofertilizers. Pseudomonas putida, Pantoea agglomerans strain P5 etc. are the examples of phosphate solublizing bacteria. Their major work is to solubilize phosphates from any sources of organic and inorganic both. Those phosphates are taken as nutrients by plants.

Microorganism converts complex nutrients into simple nutrients for the availability of the plants. Biofertilizer containing those microorganisms can play a great role in crop improvement. Crop yield can be increased by 20-30% if Biofertilizers are used properly. Biofertilizers can also protect plants from soil born diseases to a certain degree.

Vesicular-Arbuscular Mycorrhizae (VAM) fungi is often used as Biofertilizer. It is widely found in both aquatic and desert soil environments. VAM provides significant amount of nutrients to the plants such as copper, zinc, phosphorus and sulphur by making their widely extended hyphal network on the upper or lower side of the soil layer. VAM is commercially used in the fields of India.

Microorganisms such as bacteria, fungi algae etc. are commercially prepared as Biofertilizers. Those Biofertilizers are feasible and reliable for almost every crop field considering their costs and Eco friendliness rather than chemical fertilizers.
by Charles at 06-29-2010, 10:50 AM
Uncontrolled growth of a group of cells is called tumor. Tumor turns into cancer at a severe stage. The study of cancer detection and prevention is called oncology. Cancer is now the most devastating disease in the world. About 13% human deaths are caused due to cancer. The most serious news is that no effective prevention is still discovered for cancer treatment. So cancer is the emissary of death to everybody. Cancer may develop in anybody of any age.

Abnormalities of the genetic materials are the only known cause of cancer. Errors in DNA replication and heritability of the genetic diseases are the cause of cancer during birth stage. Excessive ultraviolet radiation, any harmful infectious agents, tobacco smokes or chemicals are responsible for the abnormalities of genetic materials. Genes which promote cancer are called oncogenes. They are activated in cancer cells. Tumor suppressive genes are not activated in the cancer cells. For that reason programmed cell death and hyper active division and growth of cells cannot be prevented. Inaccurate DNA replication, irregular cell cycle, damaging the immune system are the major symptoms of cancer.

There are actually three types of symptoms of cancer. They are local symptoms, systematic symptoms and symptoms of metastasis. Pain, bleeding, ulceration and swelling are the local symptoms. Enlarged lymph nodes enlarged liver, bone pain and fracture and other neurological disturbance are the symptoms of metastasis. Poor appetite, weight loss, fatigue, excessive sweating, hormonal changes and anemia are the systematic symptoms. They are considered as serious stage symptoms of cancer.

The errors which are responsible for the cancer are amplified autonomously in the exponential rate. Mutation occurring in the error correcting machinery makes it nonfunctional. Errors in the signaling system cause error message transfer. Neoplastic cells are developed. Another mutation causes the immortal cancer cells and those cells disrupt healthy normal cells. That means cancer cells are expanding by creating many errors sequentially just like a chain reaction. If 10000 cancer cells are recognized and damaged but only 10 cancer cells are left undamaged, those 10 cells will replicate again and again to create cancer.

Prevention is better than cure. But there is no effective prevention of cancer. Surgery, radiotherapy and chemotherapy are some procedure to cure cancer. But they are not harmless and secured. Genetic engineering may be the latest solution of cancer prevention. Some research has been done to discover new path of cancer prevention through genetic engineering. Genetic changes caused by events such as mutation and agents such as viruses are recognized for research. Damaged genes are trying to recover in the prevention of cancer. If the genetic factors and processes which are responsible for cancer can be controlled in the primary stage, the further progression of cancer will be controlled. Those works must be done by genetic engineering. This genetic engineering ensures the protection of cancer cells from further mutation. Genetic engineering is done if cancer is affected by genetic problems. If carcinogens create cancer then preventive steps should be taken against carcinogens. Genetic engineering may be the best solution for cancer. But this matter is still under research. Our expectation may be fulfilled in the future.
by Charles at 06-29-2010, 10:48 AM
A biometric passport is an electronic passport containing biometric information about the travelers who are traveling from one country to another country. It is also called e passport because the processing and authenticated identification of the travelers are done by the help of internet. This passport introduces a new path of technology. It looks very attractive and smart. It contains a microprocessor chip or computer chip and an antenna located in the back or front size of the passport. Both are included with the passport to maintain communication and power supply. Documentation of the document and characterization of the chip are done by international civil aviation organization. Critical information of the passport are stored in the chip and printed out in the data page of the passport. It is controlled electronically. So there is no chance to copy or forge the passport in wrong way if the all safety mechanisms are fully activated.

There are actually three types of identification reports which are included in the passport. They are DNA fingerprint recognition, facial recognition, and iris recognition. Retinal scan is also involved with this process. That information is stored in the contact less chip of the passport. It has 32 kilobytes storage capacity to store that information. But passport card of USA is not this type of biometric passport. This passport is used in a small number of nations. The four basic parts of this contact less smart biometric passport are data access control system, a microprocessor chip, communication security and other programmes to manage many function of the passport.

Biometric passports are furnished by their own security system. This security system is working to detect and avoid the threat. Non traceable random chip numbers are included in the chip electronically. So every passport has random identification number. When a reader gives the date of birth, the document number and the expired date, those will be derived to a key number into the machine readable zone and showed the extra information on the screen. In this process a reader can read the chip. This works are controlled by basic access control. Passive authentication or PA regulates any manipulation in the chip data. So PA is mandatory matter for a biometric passport. PA is working by hash value and country signing key recognition. Any copy of the biometric passport is detected by active authentication or AA. A private key is added to AA of every biometric passport which cannot be copied. Extended access control system controls the legality of both the reader and the chip. Shielding of the chip prevents the unauthorized reading of the chip. A thin metal cover is added to shield the passport to prevent unauthorized reading.

Privacy makers of many countries protest about the smaller amount of information included in the biometric passport. Their main objection is that biometric passport is working in wireless card system. So its vulnerability is a concern for them. An ID number is sufficient to get their information without caring their physical attendance. If any way security system is collapsed it cannot be worked in a safe way.

Everything of the world has its positive and negative sides. Our expectation is to overcome the negative aspect in biometric passport.
by Charles at 06-29-2010, 10:46 AM
Bio pharmaceuticals are drugs produced using biotechnology. They are proteins nucleic acids, DNA, RNA used for therapeutic or for vivo diagnostic purposes, and are produced by means other than direct extraction from a native biological source. The first such substance approved for therapeutic use was recombinant human insulin. Traditional Pharmaceutical products more commonly known as medicines or drugs, are a fundamental component of traditional medicine. It is essential that such products are safe, effective, and of good quality, and are prescribed and used rationally. Majority of the biopharmaceutical products are pharmaceuticals that are derived from life forms.

Traditional medicine is a broad term used to define any non-Western medical practice. Ethno pharmacology is a diversified approach to drug discovery involving the description, observation and experimental investigation of indigenous drugs and their biologic activities. According to the World Health Organization (WHO), almost 65% of the world's population has incorporated into their primary modality of health care. There are numerous advantages and disadvantages of traditional medicine. Most traditional medicines are well tolerated by the patient while in some cases bio-pharmaceutical products are not.

Another advantage to traditional medicine is cost. Cost is much less than biopharmaceuticals. Yet another advantage of traditional medicines is their availability. They are available without a prescription, and some can simply be grown at home. While the high cost of biopharmaceuticals and the low reimbursement levels from insurance companies present a major challenge. It is needed to explore various strategies to counter this challenge such as developing technologies that bring down the cost of drugs as well as manufacturing biopharmaceuticals with substantial market size.

For sudden, serious illnesses, mainstream medicine still reigns supreme. A traditional medicine would not be able to treat serious trauma, such as a broken leg, nor would it be able to heal appendicitis or a heart attack as effectively as a conventional doctor using modern diagnostic tests, surgery, and biopharmaceutical drugs. Biopharmaceutical medicine treats sudden illness and accidents much more effectively than traditional.
Another disadvantage of traditional medicine is the very real risks of doing oneself harm through self-dosing. That is consciously maintained by biopharmaceutical product. There’s a very real risk of overdose. Traditional products are not tightly regulated; consumers also run the risk of buying inferior quality. That is why it is best to use biopharmaceutical product. As the biopharmaceutical industry enters the 21st century, the pressure on companies to maintain the level of productivity required for consistent year-on-year growth is increasing.

This is the primary means by which the developer of the drug can recover the investment cost for development of the biopharmaceutical. In 1978 the total patents granted was 30. This had climbed to 15,600 in 1995, and by 2001 there were 34,527 patent applications. Modification of products is one target of drug design for enhancement of efficacy manufacturing process and discuss.

Simultaneously, raising public and clinician awareness of the cost benefits of biopharmaceuticals and collaborating with other insurance companies and government agencies to introduce reimbursement for biopharmaceuticals can help resolve this challenge to some extent. Traditional medicine remains largely an unproven, inexact science. Despite the criticism of traditional medicine amongst mainstream medical professionals, it is wise to remember that many common drugs we use today were derived from plant-based sources. Traditional pharmaceutical products are less safe, that is assured in modern biopharmaceutical products.
by Charles at 06-29-2010, 10:44 AM
In this decade gene therapy is getting so much attention due to its existing and future probable area of application which is really vast. Till now about 10,000 genetic disorders have been discovered. Among them some of the diseases can be treated through gene therapy right now. Researchers are going on others. Genetic disorders result from abnormalities in genes or chromosomes. Although genetic disorders are quite rare, they can be deeply influential. Some of the disorders which are well known are asthma, autism, autoimmune diseases, cancers, ciliopathies, cleft palate, diabetes, heart diseases, hypertension, inflammatory bowel disease, mental retardation, mood disorder, obesity, refractive error etc.

Gene therapy is a very sophisticated branch of genetic engineering. In a very general sense you can describe it as a technique for correcting defective genes that are responsible for disease development. There are several approaches of it like abnormal gene can be inserted to compensate for a nonfunctional gene or an abnormal gene can be repaired through selective reverse mutation etc. Gene therapies are of mainly two types: germ line cell therapy & somatic cell gene therapy. In the germ line cell therapy process, germ cells (sperm & eggs) are modified by the insertion of functional genes which are integrated into their genome. The result of this therapy is heritable to the next generation. But due to some ethical issues presently this type of therapy is restricted to human. Somatic gene therapy is performed through transferring the therapeutic genes into somatic cells of a patient and the effect of therapy is inheritable to the future generation.

The mechanism of gene therapy actually includes three steps. Firstly a vector delivers the therapeutic gene into a patient’s target cell. Then target cells become infected with the viral vector. And finally the vector’s genetic material is inserted into the target cell. Two different strategies are used for gene delivery i.e. Ex-vivo and In-vivo.

Viruses play an important role in gene therapy as vector. As they replicate by inserting their DNA into host cell gene therapy can use viruses to insert genes that encode for a desired protein to create the desired trait. Mainly Four types of viruses are used in purpose currently. They are retroviruses, adenoviruses, adeno-associated viruses and herpes simplex viruses. Besides this several non-viral options are also available for gene delivery. Amongst them the simplest is the direct introduction of therapeutic DNA into target cells. Another option is the creation of an artificial lipid sphere with an aqueous core. This liposome carrying the therapeutic DNA is capable of passing the DNA through the target cell’s membrane. Third option is to insert therapeutic DNA into target cells by chemically linking the DNA to a molecule which will bind to special cell receptors. Now researchers are trying to introduce 47th chromosome into host cell.

Gene therapy had been started in 1880 on research level. The 1st gene therapy was performed on September 14th, 1990. A patient was treated for Sever Combined Immunodeficiency (SCID). But this work was functional for a few months. But now it is possible to get 90% success. Currently researches are going on a new gene therapy approach which repairs errors in messenger RNA derived from defective genes. If this approach becomes successful then it is possible to treat blood disorder thalassaemia, cystic fibrosis and some cancers for sure. Huntington disease can be treated using RNA interference.

Although human gene therapy products are still not available for sale but its potential and importance is going to make it the exciting and new era of human disease treatment. Hope within a very short time we will see it’s magic. Just wait & watch!
by Charles at 06-27-2010, 05:55 PM
An organ transplant is the transferring of an organ from the donor's body to the patient’s body in place of receivers absent or damaged organ to activate it again. There are three types of grafting process which are applied during organ transplantation. If the organs or tissues are taken from the same patient’s body to which it will be transplanted, this grafting process is called auto graft. If the organs or tissues are taken from the donor's body into the patient’s body within same species, this grafting process is called allograft. If the donor is selected from different species of the receiver, this grafting process is called Xenograft.

The donor may be living or not in allograft process. If the donor is not living then it has a specific time limit before damaging the transplanting organs or tissues. Organs which are usually transplanted widely are liver, pancreas, kidneys, lungs, intestines etc. Tissues are collected from special parts of the body such as skins, veins, bones, cornea, and heart valves etc. kidney is the most usual organ which is transplanted for worldwide purposes.

In case of living donor, brain must be dead. For that reason parts of the brain which regulate breathing and heart beat are collapsed during transplantation. Breathing and heartbeat is controlled by artificial system for that time. But that is a tough job for the doctors. Because every patient does not have same capability to maintain breathing by artificial means. They go through the path of death. So it must be ensured that weak donor's are rejected as much as possible.

Tissues are collected from the donor within 24 hours through temporary cessation of their cardiac system. But the collected tissues from any organ except corneal tissues can be preserved or stored for at least five years. It is obviously good news for everybody. Those preserved tissues are found from the organ bank when we need them. Government has its strict regulation for the safety of proper organ transplantation. Otherwise, communicable diseases are spread out over generation to generation.

Most of the times living donor's are relatives or near and dear ones of the patient. Emotional matters are very much effective over the risks of the donor’s life. Psychologically they are strong in those cases. Donors have no concern about their own life but they want to save the life of their nearest people. So doctors should be concerned about those cases that they must not accept that types of donors which are not physically fit. Paired exchange is done by stereotyping for the living donor.

It is a compatibility test procedure between donor and receiver. Cross matching and blood incompatibility are identified by this technology. Sometimes donors are inspired to give their organs or body parts by attractive amount of money. This is unethical and unexpected matter for modern science. Transplantation medicine is a gainsaying area of modern science. Transplant rejection may occur in the patient’s body. Sometimes the immune system of the patient’s body works against transplanting body parts. In this case the transplanting organ is removed from the patient immediately. Organ transplantation brings happiness to many people by transplanted getting a new organ and a new life.
by Charles at 06-27-2010, 04:41 PM
A vaccine is a special preparation of biological elements that enhances immune system in the body of the host against a particular disease. Usually a vaccine contains a disease causing agent which induces immune system of the body by producing antibodies against those agents in the body. Those disease causing agents remain in the killed or nonfunctional attenuated form in the vaccine. So they do not create any disease in the host but are very much effective to create specific immune system in the host cell. At first the term vaccine was used by Edward Jenner in 1796 from the Latin name of cowpox causing agent variolæ vaccine. Vaccines can be of two types, some vaccines are developed to prevent the further infection by the causal agent who is called prophylactic and some vaccines are therapeutic such as vaccines to prevent cancer which still remains under investigation.

Gene’s expression of microbial cells is from pathogens which encode surface antigens. Neutralizing antibodies are induced in the host of the pathogen by those antigens. This technique is the most elementary application of genetic engineering in vaccine development. This technique is developed in the preparation of hepatitis B vaccine successfully. HBV vaccine is now used widely all around the world.

Preparation of vaccine is not so easy now. It needs to know some fundamental matters such as virulence determination, antigenic variation, response against viral antigens etc. In the primitive stage of vaccine application, antigen from the causing agents are directly injected into the host body. It was very harmful for human body. Now we are living in the time of genetic engineering where safe and secured life is ensured to everybody as much as possible. So vaccines are now prepared in the simplest and safe way by genetic engineering.

Like all the products of biotechnology and genetic engineering, vaccines have created a wide business environment all around the world. Vaccine preparation and manufacturing are now a leading areas for the young scientists and scientific companies. They are not only committed to give us the vaccines of seasonal influenza but also promised to give us vaccines of crucial diseases such as cancer or AIDS as early as possible. This worldwide leading area has also involved to create bioterrorism. So vaccination is a confusing matter for the people of third world countries. Till now vaccines business is a high risk business considering their low price and short lifetime. Competition amongst the vaccines exported companies, low efficiency of the vaccine manufacturers and commercial thinking greater than humanity are responsible for the bad affects on this sensitive business.

Businessmen are now trying to improve and manipulate vaccines in a better way so they introduce new innovation in the field of vaccines. Vaccines are now developed in combination with dendrite cell to work efficiently in the white blood cells for stimulating immune system. Recombinant vectors are used as vaccine in the host body’s cell receptor peptide vaccines are now under research. Bacterial proteins are developed in bacterial virulence mechanism by complement inhibition reaction. So vaccines manipulated by the genetic engineering can be the most essential tools for human body in the upcoming times.
by Charles at 06-27-2010, 04:40 PM
These days people are facing severe food crisis and more precisely it can be said that they are facing protein problem. With the help of Modern Biotechnology we are on the road to overcome this protein problem. Spirulina has given us a huge promise to meet up the protein demand. Spirulina is a blue green alga which is in coiled shape. It can be found in both fresh water as well as sea. Two species of cyan bacteria: Arthrospora platensis and Arthrospora maxima produce Spirulina which is commonly used as food supplement for human and animal. Spirulina is a good source of protein which contains 55%-77% protein of its dry weight.

Spirulina is used as an effective food supplement. It reduces stroke and age related declines in memory and hay fever. Moreover it can prevent heart damage which is caused by chemotherapy, using Doxorubicin. From study on mice it was proved that their metabolism is affected by Spirulina. Probably it is also applicable to human. Another study on diabetic said that correction of abnormal lipid and carbohydrate which is caused by excess fructose in the body. For treating anemia in both who is HIV negative and HIV positive Spirulina is used. It is also used for improving of keratosis and melanosis caused of chronic arsenic toxicant.

In 2008, 150 allergic rhinitis patients were observed and it was found that secretion of pro-inflammatory interleukin-4 had been reduced by 32% by Spirulina platensis. It stimulates interleukin-2 secretion helping in regulation of the inflammatory response which results in reduction of inflammation of geriatric patients in arthritis. In 2007 there was a study where 36 volunteers took 4.5 grams of Spirulina per day for six weeks and as a result it was found that the total cholesterol was in low level, HDL in high level, Triglycerides in low level, Systolic and diastolic blood pressure in low level.

This study was not done by a control group, so researchers are confused whether these changes are the effect of (partially or totally) Spirulina maxima or other confounding variables like maturation, history effect and demand characteristics. According to a double blind, randomized, medicine-controlled intervention study with the patient of geriatric Spirulina can reduce low density lipoprotein to high density lipoprotein ratio when it was supplemented with food during four months. After an observation with some geriatric patient for 16 weeks it was found that it can improve antioxidant potential and the total antioxidant level was high in patient's plasma. It was also found that Spirulina reduce the amount of creatine kinase.

Though it has already been proved that Spirulina is an essential and beneficial food supplement, there are some controversy views. People who are suffering from phenylktonuria cannot metabolize phenylalanine, causes brain damage and this amino acid is contained by Spirulina. Microcystins which is a toxin and causes liver diseases and cancer may be contained by Spirulina rarely. The safety of Spirulina is not regulated with any standard.

Though there are some negative views, advocates of Spirulina suggest to use Spirulina as a food supplement because it is a nutritious food. And the good news is that it is cultivated in the whole world and can be got easily as powder, flake or tablet form. It is hoped that it will full fill one’s demand of protein and nutrition every day in a cheaper rate if it is supplemented with food in an enough amount.
by Jessica at 06-27-2010, 04:38 PM
In a modern city life we have to deal with enormous waste that we produce through industries and homes. Without proper waste management, our cities will essentially become un-livable. Modern Biotechnology has come up to solve this problem in many ways.

There are various types of wastes like industrial waste, domestic waste and so on. Modern Environmental Biotechnology can provide proper management for them and help us to become more eco-friendly. The microbes have the potential to break and degrade the waste toxins. Australia has already taken initiative to use Biotechnology as a waste management tool. If such kinds of harmful contaminants are directly released in the river or any other source, they will pollute our water systems.

Biotechnology is also being eyed to deal with some of our nuclear and radiation waste, like the Deinococcus radiodurans bacterium may be used to manage the nuclear waste. This bacterium is capable of intoxication of mercury which is connected with the production of nuclear weapons. During the treatment of sewage, bacteria can convert the nitrogenous compound to Carbon-di-oxide and nitrogen.

Several industries like chemical industry, food industry, and brewing industries produce a lot of waste which is needed to be properly managed. Modern biotechnology uses biological processes to manage the waste from such factories. Modern biotechnology can use microbes that are suitable to break down these waste products and it converts some of it into useful products.

Vermiculture is a term used to manage the waste, it refers to the culture of earthworms. Earthworm can degrade the waste due to its gizzard system. Eisenia foetida is used extensively to manage waste and it can be used indoors as well as outdoors. Thus the waste is converted into fertilizer which increases the fertility of soil.

Certain bacterias utilize the toxin materials as their food and can convert the toxic materials into the effective compound for the soil. Thauera aromatic has the capacity to intoxicate the toxin properties of toluene and there is another bacterium that can break even the petroleum. Thus it is apparent that with the advent of Biotechnology and genetic engineering we can manage the waste very easily and effectively. We the people of 21st century are concerned with waste management as well as we think about our climate. So avoiding the chemical treatment and taking the biological system for waste management will expose us to a livable world.
by Jessica at 06-27-2010, 04:37 PM
The word Nanobiotechnology has come from the term nanotechnology. Therefore, it is hard to understand about Nanobiotechnology without understanding nanotechnology. It is assumed that we have entered into a new era of science and technology by this nanotechnology. In simple words we can say that nanotechnology is a technology that works with very small sized structures. It is a vast and diversified area of modern science and technology. It is involved with advancing new materials within this range by controlling materials on the atomic scale.

Now we are talking about Nanobiotechnology. This is one of the important areas of nanotechnology. This area deals with biological and biochemical materials on the nature. Nanobiotechnology and bionanotechnology are not same. Nanobiotechnology is the application of nanotechnology in the area of biotechnology. And bionanotechnology is the combination of biology and nanotechnology using bimolecular level research.

Now we have to know about the application of Nanobiotechnology. We know nanotechnology has the capacity to make new materials in many fields such as biomaterials, electronics, medicine and energy production. On the other hand, Nanobiotechnology works in the biological fields such as environmental effect on nonmaterial. It has great effect on global modern economics. But government has its own regulation on nanotechnology research in every country.

Nanobiotechnology has two major approaches. One of them is to utilize nano scaled tools in living system. And the other is development of nano scaled products using biological system as template. Nanobiotechnology is the combined research of organic and inorganic matters to develop new matters and to puzzle out new problems such as drug delivery vehicles, New drug development, sensors, diagnostics. Nanobiotechnology always describes the correlated multidisciplinary role connected with biosensors especially where chemistry, biology, photonics, biophysics and nanomedicine come together.

This technology did not come by the research of scientists. It has come from the nature. Nature is the inventor of this technology. Nature involves one cell to develop multifunctional cells and tissues in living system. Nanobiotechnology changes the form of energy to create new materials such as nanolasers. Nanoparticles are very much active in the field of diagnostics in molecular level. Nanoparticles are nothing but quantum dots. Nanoparticles are injected into human body for secured diagnostics of any disease. Some other technology such as microfludics are scaling down into nanofludics. In vitro diagnostics is no longer as safe as earlier. So many nano devices are now used for diagnostics. Sequencing of single molecules of DNA is now possible by many nanosystems and nanodevices.

The use of Nanobiotechnology is increasing in the pharmaceutical industries day by day. It plays important role from the first step to last step in the pharmaceutical industries. Optimal formulation of drug development is ensured by putting this technology for clinical trial. But the most crucial application is drug delivery. This technology follows intracellular delivery procedure. It is developed by transdermal drug delivery. Nanobiotechnology has also the applicability as nonviral gene therapy vector. Nanomedicine is the new contribution of Nanobiotechnology. Nanorobot is used as minimal nanodevices to solve the problems. Nanosurgery is the most modern procedure of surgery and advanced alternative to conventional surgery.
by Jessica at 06-27-2010, 04:36 PM
You may be in dilemma when you will hear that 'Probiotic is for life and Antibiotic is against life'. But it is apparently the most advanced era of biological science. Antibiotics may have severe side effects whereas the probiotics does not cause any side effects rather it improves immune system that is necessary to prevent a bacterial disease.

Probiotics may seem like a regular tablet or syrup but it is nothing like this, rather it is live conducive microorganisms that help our body to improve our immune system. Bifidobacteria and lactic acid bacteria are the most common microorganisms which are used as probiotics and help the human body to a great extent. You may be hesitant how to take live microorganisms, but think about this, all fermented foods like yogurt, bread and cheese have live microorganisms and they all are probiotics (indirectly).

Probiotics affects our intestinal system very positively and fight the pathogens in our intestinal system. Researchers have expressed positive opinion and they are experimenting if probiotics can be used to treat even acute diseases like cancer. In fact Probiotics help in prevention of atopic disease, urogenital diseases and other pathogen induced diarrhea.

The most interesting information is that the percentage of the probiotics bacteria in our body is 85% whereas other 15% are not conducive for our health.

The alteration of gut micro-ecology through probiotics works favorably for our body and enhances the immune system. Subsequently the unfriendly microorganisms are prevented from the foothold in our body. Probiotics prevents overgrowth of yeast as well as fungus. It is reported that probiotics may be even helpful in reduction of cholesterol level.

For the treatment of Candida, probiotics are recommended widely. This fungal infection is prevented as the friendly probiotics bacteria tries to defeat the growth of Candida. It also plays crucial role in the prevention and treatment of vaginal yeast infection, thrush and many other unknown disease. These microorganisms will provide you good health and it is reported that 400 types of friendly bacteria are needed to maintain good health.

We all know that our intestinal flora are most delicate and may be damaged by sodium fluoride and chlorine. Interestingly this damaging factor is present in treated city water and also present in beverages. Taking alcohol can damage our intestinal flora too. Some researchers believe that taking birth pill and several other antibiotics may wreak havoc over the friendly bacteria. So the ratio of good bacteria may be decreased and you may face different problems like constipation, excessive gas and several other problems will arise in your body. But if you take more probiotics, that friendly bacteria will combat against the bad bacteria and will ensure you a healthy body and healthy mind. So take probiotics and enjoy a healthy life.
by Jessica at 06-27-2010, 04:35 PM
In the current decade one of the most important challenges is to find out environment friendly energy source and the most recent finding source is biodiesel. Biodiesel can mitigate the need for fossil fuel without any devastating environmental effect.
Biodiesel is of vegetable oil or animal fat origin consisting of long chain alkyl esters like methyl, propyl, ethyl etc. In the biodiesel production plan organic oil is altered through the use of a catalyst and an alcohol. As a result of chemical reaction oil molecules are broken and replace the glycerin portion of the molecule with an alcohol molecule. This glycerin is discarded from the bottom of the plant, as a result of which biodiesel is drained off. This biodiesel is finally purified. The purified biodiesel can be used either in pure form or in blended form with petroleum diesel at any concentration as it is used in most injection pump diesel engines.

Biodiesel has much more lubricating properties as well as higher cetane ratings than petroleum fuel. Addition of biodiesel decreases fuel system wear. By using biodiesel it has been found that it gives more complete combustion and increases the engine energy output as well as partially compensates for the higher energy density of petro diesel. Now a days the amount of biodiesel usage is about 3.8 million per year. From 2007 biodiesel production has found growth with an average rate from 2002-2006 of over 40%. In 2008 Europe had alone produced 7.8 million tones. In 2005-2006 the world production of biodiesel was about 110 million tones. Amongst them are about 34 million tons each of palm oil and soybean oil. The oils which are commonly used in biodiesel production are virgin oil feedstock, waste vegetable oil, animal fats like tallow, lard, yellow grease, chicken fat, omega-3 fatty acid from fish etc, algae, oils from halophytes etc.

The actual importance of using biodiesel is not only to replace fossil fuel which will not be available someday because of limited storage but also control the emission of greenhouse gases in the atmosphere. As fossil fuels the usage of biodiesel will still produce one of the most important greenhouse gas carbon dioxide but the plant feedstock used in its production absorbs carbon dioxide through photosynthesis from atmosphere, thus it is distinct from fossil fuels. Biodiesel use can decrease direct tailpipe emission of particulates, about 50% as compared with fossil fuels. Through the use with additives biodiesel produces 10% nitrogen oxide which is much lower than petroleum. Besides degradation rate of biodiesel is same as dextrose control and 5 times quicker than petroleum over a period of 28 days. It has been found that biodiesel blends double the rate of petroleum diesel degradation through co-metabolism. In addition biodiesel degrades more completely and shows no mortalities and little toxicity on plant and animal.

Practically biodiesel is very easy to use. Biodiesel or biodiesel blends can be used in engines, vehicles or infrastructure with practically no change. It’s another advantage is it provides similar horse power, torque and fuel mileage compared to petroleum diesel fuel. Even in cold weather there is no problem to use it because you can use it in gel form, Just blend it with winterized diesel fuel, isn’t it very easy?

World is now suffering from green house effect at the same time the total energy recourses are getting reduced day by day which will come to an end one day. In this situation biodiesel can really be treated as a ray of hope, what say?
by Jessica at 06-27-2010, 04:34 PM
Days are passing by and the freshness of our planet is fading. The first steps of human beings on this planet trace back to about 4 billion years. Humans have been harrowing the nature by the barbarous activities over the years. We have polluted, transformed and altered the delicate balance of nature. If these destructive activities continue, our planet will be annihilated within a short period of time. Should we allow it .. NO! The Green revolution through Biotechnology is certainly the best and the most reliable answer for changing our climate.

Temperature rising on our planet, melting ice and intensifying cyclones are the most common symptoms of climate change and humans have a great hand in this change (if not all). An increase in the level of carbon-di-oxide and other greenhouse gases are the main culprits for climate change. Reducing CO2 is extremely important.

We can modify the plants through genetic engineering so that they can take more carbon from atmosphere and convert it to oxygen. Mixing microbes in the soil can be an option as it can retain carbon as well as increase the soil fertility. The potency of ocean microbes may be increased so that they can remove carbon from the atmosphere and deposit this carbon in Deep Oceans. But security measures should be taken to overcome any negative effect this may cause to our oceans. Modern environmental biotechnology is the best solution in this regard.

Modern biotechnology and genetic engineering can manipulate plant genes so that it will be possible to grow that type of plant in regions which do not have much water or other favorable conditions in their current form. We certainly have to reduce pollution and carbon emissions.

Genome sequence of various microbes and plants has opened an advanced era where we can manipulate genes for reducing the carbon emission and can change the climate within short time. Genetic manipulation is a safe way to save the world and is the best option in cutting green house gas emission. Bio-fuel from the advanced biotechnology has solved the problem of energy to a great extent.
by Charles at 06-24-2010, 01:19 PM
Biotechnology is a rapidly growing field. Software Engineers, watch out,  biotechnology jobs are bound to become the next hottest thing in future.

The Top Ten Biotechnology Companies* are:
1 Amgen - USA
2 Genentech - USA
3 Serono - Switzerland
4 Biogen Idec - USA
5 Genzyme - USA
6 Chiron Corp. - USA
7 Gilead Sciences - USA
8 CSL - Australia
9 MedImmune - USA
10 Cephalon - USA
11 Millennium Pharmaceuticals - USA
12 Genencor International - USA
13 ImClone Systems - USA
14 Actelion - Switzerland
15 Celgene - USA
16 MGI Pharma - USA
17 QLT - Canada
18 Nabi Biopharmaceuticals - USA
19 AEterna Zentaris - Canada
20 Regeneron Pharmaceuticals - USA
21 Enzon Pharmaceuticals - USA
22 Ligand Pharmaceuticals - USA
23 Berna Biotech - Switzerland
24 Acambis - UK
25 InterMune - USA
26 Cangene - Canada
27 Vertex Pharmaceuticals - USA
28 Protein Design Labs - USA
29 Innogenetics - Belgium
30 Neurocrine Biosciences - USA
31 Transkaryotic Therapies - USA
32 Icos - USA
33 United Therapeutics - USA
34 LifeCell - USA
35 Myriad Genetics - USA
36 OSI Pharmaceuticals - USA
37 Isis Pharmaceuticals - USA
38 Bioniche Life Sciences - Canada
39 Enzo Biochem - USA
40 ID Biomedical - Canada
41 Protherics - UK
42 ViroLogic - USA
43 ZymoGenetics - USA
44 Peptech - Australia
45 Antisoma - UK
46 Carrington Laboratories - USA
47 Cell Therapeutics - USA
48 Cambridge Antibody Technology - UK
49 Crucell - The Netherlands
50 Vernalis - UK
51 Bavarian Nordic - Denmark
52 MorphoSys - Germany
53 Anika Therapeutics - USA
54 ImmunoGen - USA
55 Corixa - USA
56 AnGes MG - Japan
57 SciClone Pharmaceuticals - USA
58 Kosan Biosciences - USA
59 ViroPharma - USA
60 Agenix - Australia
61 Tanox - USA
62 CV Therapeutics - USA
63 NeuroSearch - Denmark
64 Indevus Pharmaceuticals - USA
65 BioMarin Pharmaceutical - USA
66 Dyax - USA
67 MediGene - Germany
68 Maxygen - USA
69 Abgenix - USA
70 GPC Biotech - Germany
77 Cytogen - USA
72 Genta - USA
73 Vical - USA
74 NPS Pharmaceuticals - USA
75 ML Laboratories - UK
76 Vitrolife - Sweden
77 Cerus - USA
78 Encysive Pharmaceuticals - USA
79 Arena Pharmaceuticals - USA
80 Medarex - USA
81 Amrad - Australia
82 Life Therapeutics - Australia
83 GenVec - USA
84 Medivir - Sweden
85 Cell Genesys - USA
86 Inex Pharmaceuticals - Canada
87 Inspire Pharmaceuticals - USA
88 Myogen - USA
89 Targeted Genetics - USA
90 Epimmune - USA
91 Progenics Pharmaceuticals - USA
92 Active Biotech - Sweden
93 GroPep - Australia
94 Novogen - Australia
95 Unigene Laboratories - USA
96 Vicuron Pharmaceuticals - USA
97 Xenova - UK
98 Dusa Pharmaceuticals - USA
99 Senetek - USA
100 Valentis - USA

* Source: MedAdNews, 2004

Wikipedia also has a list of top 100 biotech companies at

Top 10 biotech companies in India

1. Biocon
Established in the year 1978 Biocon, global biopharmaceutical enterprise is actively involved in the manufacturing and development of innovative technologies that includes large-scale chemical synthesis, microbial fermentation, mammalian cell culture, purification of protein & antibody and various aseptic formulations.

Chairman – Kiran Mazumdar-Shaw; Corporate Office – Bangalore, India | Sector – Private | Website –

2. Serum Institute of India
Serum Institute of India Ltd. established in the year 1966 is the world's largest producer of Measles and DTP group of vaccines. The company manufactures life-saving Biologicals including Anti-Snake Venom and Tetanus Antitoxin serum, DTP (Diphtheria, Tetanus and Pertussis) and MMR (Measles, Mumps and Rubella) group of vaccines at affordable prices.
Chairman – Cyrus S. Poonawalla; Location: Pune, India |
Sector – Private | Website –

3. Panacea Biotech Ltd
Panacea Biotec established in the year 1976, has strong R and D capabilities with a wide range of pipeline including:
 Development various complex pharmaceutical generic compounds Technologies)
 Development of New Chemical Entities (NCE)
 Vaccines
Chairman – Soshil Kumar, Corporate Office – New Delhi, India |
| Business – Pharmaceutical, Biotechnology |
Sector – Private | Website –

4. Novo Nordisk
Established in the year 1923, Novo Nordisk is the world’s leader in diabetes care, manufacturing broadest diabetes product that includes development of the most advanced products related to insulin delivery systems.
Chairman – Sten Scheibye, Corporate Office – Denmark,
Business -Sector –Pharmaceutical- Private | Website –

5. GlaxoSmithKline Pharmaceuticals Ltd.
One of the earliest pharmaceutical companies in India is GSK India. It was established in the year 1924. The GSK India is an important group of manufacturing products of wide range of prescription medicines and vaccines in therapeutic areas such as dermatology, anti-infectives, diabetes, oncology, cardiovascular and respiratory diseases. The company also manufactures vaccines for prevention of hepatitis A and B, invasive diseases caused by H. influenzae, chickenpox, DPT, cervical cancer, rotavirus, Streptococcal pneumonia etc.
Chairman – Chris Gent; Corporate Office – London, United Kingdom
Business –Biotechnology and Pharmaceutical,
Sector – Private | Website –

6. SIRO Clinpharm
Established in the year 1996 the company provides a wide range of services including Clinical Operations & Clinical Monitoring, Clinical Data management, medical and scientific writing, biostatistics and statistical programming, clinical trial supplies management, pharmacovigilance.
Chairman – Dr. Gautam Daftary; Corporate Office – Thane, India | | | Business – Drug Development; Sector – Private | Website –

7. Novozymes, South Asia
Novozymes a biotech company established in 1925 strongly focus on production of novel enzymes. The company’s biosolution provides everything from the removal of trans fats in food to advancements in bioenergy sources.
Chairman – Københavns Lufthavne; Corporate Office – Bagsvaerd, Denmark; Novozymes South Asia Pvt. Ltd. Bangalore, India; Sector – Private | Website –

8. Zydus Cadila
Zydus Cadila, established in the year 1952, is a fully integrated, global healthcare company with complete healthcare solutions ranging from active pharmaceutical ingredients, formulations products related to animal health care to wellness products. The company is the only Indian pharma establishment that launched the world’s first drug NCE – Lipaglyn for treatment of diabetic dyslipidemia.
Chairman - Mr. Pankaj R. Patel, Corporate office-Ahmedabad, Sector- Private Website-

9. Indian Immunologicals
Indian Immunologicals Ltd. (IIL) was established in 1982 by The National Dairy Development Board (NDDB) with the focus to manufacture Foot and Mouth Disease (FMD) vaccine available to poor people at an affordable price. IIL provides a range of adult as well as child vaccines.
Chairman – Dr. Amrita Patel; Corporate Office – Hyderabad, India
Business-sector –Biotechnology-private; Website –

10. Wockhardt Ltd.
Established in the year 1960 Wockhardt Ltd. is an international manufacturer of biopharmaceutical formulations along with Active Pharmaceutical Ingredients (API).
An integrated multi-technology capability was developed by the company for manufacturing all types of dosage formulation that includes sterile injectables and lyophilised products.
Chairman – Habil Khorakiwala; Corporate Office – Mumbai, India;
Business – Sector Biotechnology and Pharmaceutics-private
Website –
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