09-19-2010, 04:16 PM (This post was last modified: 09-20-2010, 04:06 AM by Administrator.)
Bioremediation is the branch of biotechnology which deals with the methods of solving the environmental problems. It also plays vital role in cleaning the environment from pollutants and contaminants by using the microorganisms and fungi. Bacteria are the most important microbes in this process because they break the dead materials into organic matter and nutrients. It is not necessary that all types of contaminants can be destroyed with bioremediation; heavy metals like lead and cadmium are not the type of contaminants which can be decomposed by the microorganisms. Special type of contaminants like chlorinated pesticides cab easily digested by bacteria. Similarly oil spills can also be cleaned by bacteria.
How does bioremediation work:-
For the process of bioremediation, it is necessary that microorganisms should be healthy and active so that they can perform their duty efficiently. It is not necessary that all the microorganisms detoxify the same contaminants and toxins but for different toxins there are different microorganisms because there are different habitats for different organisms.
Bioremediation can take place in two conditions that are aerobic and anaerobic conditions. In anaerobic condition, microbes need oxygen to perform their duty. If they will get oxygen in sufficient amount they will be able to easily convert the contaminants and toxins into water and carbon. In anaerobic conditions, microbes do the activity in the absence of oxygen. Chemical compounds which are present in the soil can be decomposed by bacteria under anaerobic conditions. As a result energy produces which is used by the microbes.
Types of Bioremediation:-
There are three types of bioremediation and all are used to remove toxic substances and contaminants from the environment whether they are rivers or crude oils.
Biostimulation is the method in which bacteria are motivated to start the process of bioremediation. In this method, first he experts release nutrients and other important substances in the soil where there is need or removing the contaminants. These are in the form of gas or liquid. It increases the growth of microbes in that area. As a result bacteria and other microorganisms remove the contaminants quickly and efficiently.
In some processes of bioremediation, there are some special sites where microorganisms are needed to remove the contaminants for example municipal wastewater. Bioaugmentation is used for that purpose. But unfortunately this process is not very successful as it is difficult to control the growth of microorganisms to remove the particular contaminant.
The process of intrinsic bioremediation takes place in soil and water because these two places are always full of contaminants and toxins. This process is also called as natural attenuation. It also means use of the microorganisms to remove the harmful substances from soil and water. Especially those sites are treated with this method, which are underground, for example underground petroleum tanks. It is difficult to know if there is a leakage in the petroleum pipes. Contaminants and toxins find their way to enter in these sites and create harmful effects on the petrol. Therefore, only microorganisms can destroy the toxins and clean the tanks. Great care should be taken if some leakage occurs in the petroleum tanks or pipes because it may damage the human health.
10-03-2012, 11:12 PM (This post was last modified: 10-03-2012, 11:15 PM by Administrator.)
Today microorganisms are greatly contributing in saving planet earth. They use their combination of enzymes and clean the pollutants. The combine use of these enzymes along with detergents is used in cleaning of clothes, debris, organic and inorganic wastes.
In nature, natural scavengers are already presents which help in decomposing the dead bodies, plants wastages, pollutants in to simple form so that these can be further utilized by other animals to continue the natural cycles and thus maintain the ecological balance. Now various chemicals, petrochemicals, heavy metal waste, pesticides, etc. are contaminating with the clean environments which are not degraded by the microbes or natural scavengers which causes threat to the environment and our planet earth.
With modern technology like Genetic Engineering, Biotechnology can solve this problem. The process utilizes genetically engineered microbes, enzymes and plants which are used to clean any pollutants or solve any environmental problem. This is called Bioremediation. Pollutants or waste which is not recycled easily are destroyed by incineration or landfills but still this is not 100% recycle process and problem remains the same. But, today due to the development of technology and genetic engineering, bioremediation are done which are capable of degrading highly toxic and in-organic materials. These are not only eco-friendly but also cost effective and gives the desire effect with very low or no side effect.
Advantages of Bioremediations are many more and still getting discover- like it is now used very successfully in excavation, in petrochemicals, in agriculture, in converting barren land in fertilized land. Some examples/types of Bioremediations are bioventing, land farming, bioreactor, Biostimulation, industrial waste management’s and water treatment etc.
Recently in September 2012, in Colorado, slew of microorganism were unearthed through process of meta-genomic sequencing and had shown successful bioremediation of uranium contaminated sites. Further research is going on to develop this process which is not only helping in all cases of pollutants, but also new techniques are further directly restoring our planet and helping us to live and survive in more eco-friendly environment !
The population explosion in the world has resulted in an increase in the area of polluted soil and water. As the number of people continues increasing day by day it also brings with it a growing pressure on air, water and land resources. In order to cater to the demands of the people, the rapid expansion of industries, food, health care, vehicles, etc. is necessary. But it is very difficult to maintain the quality of life with all these new developments, which are unfavorable to the environment in which we live, if proper management is not applied. In nature there are various fungi, bacteria and microorganisms that are constantly at work to break down organic compounds but the question arises when pollution occurs, who will do this clean up job? Since the quality of life is inextricably linked to the overall quality of the environment, global attention has been focused on ways to sustain and preserve the environment. This endeavor is possible by involving biotechnology.
Role of Environmental Biotechnology in Pollution Management
Biotechnology can be used to assess the well being of ecosystems, transform pollutants into benign substances, generate biodegradable materials from renewable sources, and develop environmentally safe manufacturing and disposal processes. Environmental biotechnology employs the application of genetic engineering to improve the efficiency and cost, which are key factors in the future widespread exploitation of microorganisms to reduce the environmental burden of toxic substances. In view of the urgent need of an efficient environmental biotechnological process, researchers have devised a technique called bioremediation, which is an emerging approach to rehabilitating areas fouled by pollutants or otherwise damaged through
Bioremediation is the process that breaks down hazardous substance into less toxic substance by using naturally occurring micro organism like yeast,fungi or bacteria.Bacteria play important role in cleaning environment.These bacteria present in such places where toxins are abundant and they cannot be removed with any other method.Bacteria is used to remove harmful substance from river and sea.
Thanks, to sharing here a helpful information. Bioremediation is determined as use of biological procedures to lower, break down, convert, and/or basically eliminate contaminants or impairments of quality from soil and water. Bioremediation is a natural process which depends on parasites, fungus, and vegetation to improve pollutants as these creatures bring out their regular life features. Metabolic procedures of these creatures are capable of using substance pollutants as an power source, making the pollutants simple or less harmful products in most cases. This document summarizes the common procedures of bioremediation within the ground atmosphere, concentrating on biodegradation of oil hydrocarbons. The effect of ground circumstances on rate of biodegradation of hydrocarbons is resolved. There are two types of Bioremediation In-Situ Remediation and Ex-Situ Remediation.
Bioremediation is another fantastic example of how microbes can help improve human life. As a species, we excel at finding ways to make nature work for us, and microbes are not immune from this. Bioremediation is much a very eco-friendly way to help purify waste water. The enzymes produced by the bacteria are much more natural than man-made chemicals and detergents, and are less likely to cause harm to organisms in the environment. While often the initial human reaction to the word bacteria is thinking of sickness, the vast majority of bacteria on earth are either beneficial or benign.
We can also use bacteria to clean up oil spills. There are certain bacteria that can metabolize petroleum, and use it as a fuel in place of other types of organic hydrocarbons. This is much safer for the ecosystem than introducing large quantities of detergents. The detergents may even be more toxic to some organisms than the oil itself. Even though using bacteria to clean up oil spills sounds like an ideal solution, there are some concerns. Some people argue that introducing a foreign bacterial strain to an area could harm the ecosystem. Indeed, these petroleum-eating bacteria will multiply and become a very large part of the ecosystem as they break down the oil. However, once the oil is gone, the bacteria lose their food source, and their levels will decrease. Another problem with using bacteria to clean up oil spills is that the water temperature must be at a specific range in order for the bacteria to work efficiently. Unfortunately, it can be difficult to control the temperature of the ocean.
Also, I have just one quick correction. Aerobic bioremediation occurs in the presence of oxygen. Anaerobic bioremediation occurs in the absence of oxygen. The original post stated that anaerobic bioremediation occurs in the presence and absence of oxygen.