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Bio sensors - What are they?
Bio sensors are devices that track, detect, record and transmit the data about analyte that combines a biological component with a physico chemical transducer component. A bio sensor consists of components; a biological receptor part like tissue, micro organism, enzyme, antibody etc, a detector element which can be optical, piezo electric, electrochemical etc and other electronic parts like sensors, signal processors etc. Leland Clark is known as the Father of Bio sensors. Clark invented Clark’s electrode which can be used to measure the amount of oxygen in blood or any other fluid, and this formed a turning point in the field of bio sensors.

Bio sensors are developing towards the horizons because of its infinite uses in a wide area. Once, bio sensors where tools for providing answers to the questions that perplexed scientists about the biochemical changes occurring inside every living organism. Now they have evolved and attained a commercial status through its applications like glucose monitoring in diabetes patients. Tremendous leaps in the fields of electronic and software engineering are aiding the growth of bio sensors, which are turning them into one of the common tools of bio technologist.

The bio sensors can be electrochemical, ion channel switch or others like piezo electrical in sensor functioning. Each of the components of the bio sensor may vary according to the basic sensor principle it utilizes. As mentioned, the bio sensor consist of three major components which includes biological receptor, detector element or the transducer and other electronic parts including sensors and signal processors. The biological receptor plays the lead in the bio sensor’s mechanisms. Catalytic enzymes have acquired the place for themselves among the biological receptors. This is because the catalytic enzyme’s reactions give path to production of a variety of measurable products. These include heat, light, protons and electrons. Bio sensors applied in the glucose monitoring mainly depends on catalytic enzyme glucose oxidase which is a catalytic enzyme. In the presence of glucose oxidase, glucose reacts with oxygen to produce gluconic acid and hydrogen peroxide. The first generation glucose bio sensors relied on the produced hydrogen peroxide. This is achieved by measuring the electron acceptance by oxygen. But due to stoichiometric variations, this measure could not be relied upon completely. In this context the second generation glucose bio sensors used artificial mediators that are synthetic electron acceptors like tetrathiafulvalene-tetracyanoquinodimethane, phenothiazine, ferricyanide etc. With the major exception of glucose bio sensor, most of the other bio sensors depend on antibodies as receptors. The monoclonal antibody increased the popularity of use of antibodies as receptors in bio sensors. Bio sensors also use aptamers which are nucleic acid ligands as receptors.

The bio sensors find its application ranging from estimation of blood glucose to complicated research studies in biotechnology. With the use of glucose bio sensors, long gone are the days of pricking the finger tips everyday for estimating the blood glucose levels. Especially diabetes mellitus patients reporting continuous and high fluctuations in their blood glucose levels, of diabetes mellitus Type I, will find that glucose bio sensors are a boon. Most modern bio sensors incorporate chips that the naked eyes struggles to find out. The size of chips in a bio sensor system has gone down as small as a size of 0.5 x 2 millimeters. The patient can keep the blood glucose levels in check as the results are continuous and could be connected to a mobile device. Single bio sensor can last for months which also add the benefit of durability. It can be hoped that diabetes mellitus; one of the biggest health challenges of 21st century and one among the leading causes of death according to Centers for Disease Control and Prevention; can be held at a check thanks to the invaluable contribution of biotechnology. The next major application of bio sensors is in the food industry. Increasing world population is demanding higher food supplies, which paves the way for a big jump in the food industry. This same reason also demands much more advanced safety measures in the production and distribution of food. Pathogens and food toxins that are the causative factors of food poisoning are a real threat now. It is in this scenario that the applications of the bio sensors come in handy. Bio sensors can be used to detect these pathogens and food toxins. Bio sensors are also used in estimation of routine body fluid tests of blood, urine etc., and water pollution detection for pathogens, toxins, pesticides, check on environmental pollution and estimating various polluting agents, in the field of pharmacology for studying the actions of various drugs, countering bio terrorism activities through the detection of air borne pathogens, detection of toxic metabolites like mycotoxins, etc. Bio sensors have also found industrial application in the bio reactors for continuous monitoring of carbon sources, dissolved gases, in fermentation etc. This could be utilized for the optimization of biological reactions in the bio reactors and hence leading to maximum yield.

One of the ultra modern applications of bio sensors are the DNA bio sensors. It is the ultrasensitive electrochemical detection of DNA based on nanoparticle tags. Here nucleic acid is used as the bio recognition element. DNA sensors are used instead of conventional micro arrays which are widely used for the detection of DNA sequences until recent. DNA bio sensors promise genetic field a higher level of development, the most major being in the medical diagnostics. Almost all of the genetic disorders could be studied in detail using DNA sensors which in turn will lead to creation of an appropriate solution in future. This occurs on a stage where majority of genetic disorders are moving on without a proper remedy or treatment. It will also find its way into forensic sciences, a field where ultra modern methods are now unavoidable. DNA sensors can further extent to agriculture, where it could used for elimination of certain plant diseases and at the same time for the development of better variety of crops.

Bio sensors are forming itself into a platform where the whole field of biotechnology can place its foot on for development. Starting from the invention of the Clark’s electrode by Leland Clark, the booming evolution process of bio sensors have now reached in the inventions like Quantum dots, Nanoparticles, Nanowires, Nanotubes etc. The complete understanding of the extremely complicated bio chemical processes made by biotechnology is attributed to bio sensors.
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Hey Guys my name is Mark. Well i think that biosensor is an systematic device used for the reputation of an analyse that brings together a scientific element with a physicochemical sensor. Thanks!!
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The first biosensor was developed by Leland Clark Jr. in 1962, the blood glucose biosensor. However, there are events that could date back its rich history and eventual new discoveries.

In 1916, Nelson and Griffin made their first ever report on the immobilization of certain proteins which are responsible for the adsorption for invertase on activated charcoal.

It was in 1922 that the first glass PH electrode was discovered. In 1956, Clark invented the oxygen electrode. And by 1962, he made the biosensor’s first description, which was the amperometric enzyme electrode for glucose.

The first potentiometric biosensor was in 1969 where urease was immobilized to detect urea on an ammonia electrode. In 1970, Bergveld introduced his invention, the Ion-selective Field-effect Transistor (ISFET).

During 1972-1975, biosensors began to be commercialized. They used glucose biosensors which are single-use pen-shaped electrodes.

The first microbe-based biosensor, immunosensor (ovalbumin placed on platinum wire), pO2/pCO2 optode came out on 1975. The latter is associated with fluorescence signal & gas permeable membrane usage. A year after that, Miles presented the first bedside artificial pancreas.

Peterson, in 1980, introduced the first fiber-optic PH sensor to be used in vivo blood gases. Then two years after, the first fiber-optic based biosensor emerged for glucose detection.

In 1983, another kind of immunosensor came out, which was a surface plasmon resonance (SPR) type. After a year, a first of the mediated amperometric biosensor was out to the public, a ferrocene utilized with glucose oxidase, again for glucose detection.

MediSense ExactechTM launched their blood glucose biosensor in 1987 where it consists of strips and a disposable pen model. Three years after, Pharmacia BIACore let out their SPR-based biosensor system. In another two years, i-STAT began to launch their hand-held blood analyzer.

1996 was the date for the Glucocard, as well as the purchase of Medisense by Abbot for the amount of $867 million.

In 1998, LifeScan introduced their FastTake blood glucose biosensor to the market. It was also during this year that two companies, Boehringer Mannheim and Roche formed Roche Diagnostics.

By 2001, LifeScan bought Inverness Medical’s business involving glucose testing for $1.3 billion. Since then, more and more inventions came such as the Quantum Dots, BioNMES, Nanotube, Nanowire, Nanocantilever, and Nanoparticles.
Lyka Candelario, RN
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A bio sensor is chemical sensing device in which a biologically derived recognition is coupled to a transducer, to allow the quantitative development of some complex biochemical parameter.
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