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by Capkeeds at 01-03-2012, 06:03 PM
Hi

This forum provide all kinds of biotechnology categories information which related to the human health.
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by shalinibalan at 12-24-2011, 03:34 AM
Liposuction is a process whereby the fats underneath the skin is removed from many portions on the human body using a hollow stainless steel tube called as cannula with the assistance of a powerful vacuum termed as aspirator. This is very popular form of cosmetic surgery done by those who want to look beautiful beneath their garments. This is sort off a minute surgery in which very large volume of diluted anesthesia is injected into the area needing liposuction. This makes the fat present under the skin to be firm and stiff in nature. Since it is local anesthesia it will be present for a longer duration and no pain killer is needed after the surgery. This form of liposuction is termed as Tumescent Liposuction. There another form of liposuction called Modified Tumescent Liposuction where a heavy sedation is being administered by the anesthesiologist.
Liposuction is usually done in the areas like tummy, hips, breasts, buttlocks, things and also arms. The main aim of liposuction is that you look beautiful and presentable in the mirror.

The cost varies and usually depends upon the number of areas which is being operated on. And also the following factors are taken into consideration like type of liposuction technique opted for. For Example Tumescent Liposuction or Modified Tumescent Liposuction which needs anesthesiologist during the procedure which in turn can add to the cost. The duration of stay in the hospital also depends on number of areas operated.

The tumescent technique for liposuction is the safest form of liposuction. When tumescent liposuction is done appropriately, it is a very safe procedure. Administration of right amount of anesthesia is very important, even a little added anesthesia can lead to death which can be prevented in case of tumescent liposuction. The tumescent method involves the use of microcannulas which in turn yields smoother cosmetic results without causing any irregularities and depressions in the skin.

Although this is not a major surgery, but it involves some major risk factors and there should be enough time for the healing of the wound to take place. Liposuction complications include swelling in the areas and also the surroundings, but if it doesn’t heal and persists longer than expected it shows off the sign for some major complication. It may also lead to evident bruising, which generally fades away in 2 to 4 weeks. The occurrence of bruising will generally tend to vary from person to person. Dimpling is another liposuction side effect that many people face as the excess of fat is been removed from the area resulting in ugly and lumpy appearance. Thrombophlebitis or inflammation on your veins occurs in case of the upper thigh region. As after every surgery there is some discomfort and numbness, so it is in liposuction surgeries. Let whatever be the reason it is always advised to see the doctor if the side effects stays than the usual.

To avoid these side effects many switch off to laser liposuction which promises to be absolutely painless and risk free. People get easily carried away with such kind of promises who try hard to beat their stubborn fat with no result. But even with laser liposuction there are many side effects like having a skin burn.This occurs due to the excessive heat that comes off the laser. But if the procedure is carried out safely and properly by an experienced doctor it can be easily avoided. In addition to the above risk there can be a loss of excess skin due to more effect of the laser beam. People can also experience bleeding, infections, allergies from anesthetics, contour deformities and development of loose skin.

Again to avoid such effects on the skin they can go for liposuction listed below which are comparatively costlier.
1. Wet liposuction
2. Super-wet liposuction
3. Tumescent liposuction
4. Ultrasonic Liposuction
5. Micro Liposuction
6. Power-Assisted Liposuction

Some Lip clinics carries out lipo transfers with stem cells derived from lipo aspirates. Lipo grafs are enriched with key growth factors to increase life and viability. This is done mostly in face, breast, gluteal region. Some dietary changes and management through exercise and yoga are also been advised after liposuction surgery. But this should be avoided at least for 2 to 3 weeks after the surgery as time is needed for its full recovery.
by shalinibalan at 12-21-2011, 02:20 AM
Genetic counseling is an upcoming career in genetics and bioscience. After completion of the course they turn out to be professional genetic counselors, they can have their basic graduation from biology, genetics, nursing, psychology, public health, and social work. They also take part in clinical training. Students in these programs study genetics, psychosocial theory, ethics, and counseling.

Genetic counselors perform the role of evaluating and analyzing family history and medical records. They check whether there is any previous history of genetic disorders or birth defects in the family and educate the family members about the future possibilities of inheritance of the same defect or disorder. They play a very important role in letting the parents or the family members take a right decision, which can prevent lot of pain and struggle in the future. They serve as patient advocates, and refer individuals and families to community or state support services. They offer psychological support to the patients and the affected members of the family. Many along with counseling profession carry out their research activities also. The risk of occurrence of the disorder can be easily estimated by the genetic counselors.

Genetic tests are carried out by testing small samples of blood or body tissues. The test lets you know that whether you or your partner have any genetic defects that can be passed to the next generation.
They work as a team of health care professional along with doctor.

Usually doctors refer for genetic counseling under following cases.
• In case you or your spouse has a parent or a close relative with an inherited disease or birth defect.
• Either you or your husband already has children with birth defects or genetic disorders.
• If you have passed child bearing ages an had previous history of miscarriages
• Prenatal screening test shows an abnormal result.
• Sometimes about genetic defects that occur frequently in certain ethnic or racial groups. For example progenies of African parents may have sickle cell anemia and couples of Italian, Greek, or Middle Eastern descent may carry the gene for thalassemia, a red blood cell disorder.
It’s always better and safe to go for genetic counseling in case the first two factors apply.

Some of the genetic disorders that can be identified through testing are:
• Down's syndrome
• Cystic fibrosis
• Sickle cell
• Tay-Sachs disease (a fatal disease affecting the central nervous system)
• Spina bifida.

Huntington's disease which is a degenerative nerve disease and Marfan syndrome is known to cause connective tissue disorder can be hereditary from just one parent. Genetic disorders like cystic fibrosis, sickle cell anemia, and Tay-Sachs disease, cannot occur unless both the mother and father pass along the gene. Some diseases like achondroplasia, the most common form of dwarfism can be inherited of because of some mutation.

The results obtained after genetic tests are not easy to interpret and come to a proper solution. These tests tell us about the missing pair of genes or a gene or any sort off mutations in the genome etc. They provide an accurate analysis after going through the results, which may be very complex.

CAREER OPPORTUNITIES

Genetic counselors can work under following areas. :
Genetic counselors may specialize in genetic counseling in the prenatal, pediatric, cancer-risk, adult, cardiovascular, hematology, and neurogenetics setting Or they can be professionally employed in hospitals and provide counseling to the referred patients and their families. They can also work with upcoming biotech companies which devise, sell, and administer genetic tests. They can also provide a link between diagnostic laboratory and referring physicians and their patients. Usually genetics involves a lot of study on ethics and its issue, so they are employed as educators and advice company’s students, and lawmakers. Genetic counselors also work as study coordinator for research projects involved in genetics.

After genetic counseling is given, the family concerned can go for the following options like

Pre-implantation diagnosis, use donor sperm or donor eggs, adoption, taking the risk and having a child. These counseling sometimes prepare you mentally and emotionally to take the risk of having the child or abortion is also advised. Some can take decision and establish pregnancy and have specific prenatal testing.
by shalinibalan at 12-19-2011, 05:02 AM
Bacteria are small thread like microorganisms that cause infection in the human body and affect us with various illness and sickness. But there are also some friendly bacteria that help us in the digestion of the food and are very important for the survival of life. There are many useful bacteria that play important roles in both plant and animal kingdoms. Some bacteria are also used to make healthy food like cheese and yoghurt. Some bacteria like staphylococci are harmless and live in and out of the body. But its mutated form such as MRSA or methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus has developed resistance to all the antibiotics .This can cause very serious skin infection which can be difficult to treat. It’s another form bacteria such as streptococci causes throat and respiratory infections, including pneumonia. Staphylococcus aureus, which causes skin infection, enters to the body through a cut or a wound and produces pus. Staph infection causes food poisoning and can also lead to more life-threatening conditions, such as toxic shock syndrome, pneumonia, and infections of the heart of bloods.

The symptoms of bacterial infections are often evident like fever, swelling, discharge and pain in the affected area. Sometimes the body fights these bacteria and tries to get rid of them through diarrhea or vomiting. Often a thorough examination is needed to confirm bacterial infection. Bacteria are quick to reproduce in the body and they produce toxins that cause illness.

Bacterial infection can be cured by treatment with antibiotics. Each antibiotic has a different and specific pathway for stop bacterial infection. Some kill the multiplication process by interrupting the reproduction cycle. Some of them slow their growth and some stop them from multiplying until body's immune system can destroy them. Classes of antibiotics include.

• Penicillin
• Cephalosporins
• Tetracyclines
• Aminoglycosides
• Quinolones
• Macrolides

Some of them are termed as broad spectrum antibiotics which are effective against a wide variety of bacteria. Other bacteria are only specific in nature and they kill only specific bacterial invasion.
Long term hospitalization can cause hoards of bacterial infections. They are more serious because they are communicable in nature and spread from person to person. Now, researchers are working to wipe out these infections with a new bacteria-killing bandage. These super bugs can be demolished by having a micro bacterial coating that can kill the most harmful bacteria. A microbial agent is present on the bandage which is permanently bonded on the surface of the fibers of the dressing, that’s kills the bacteria. These bandages can also be washed when the bacteria adheres to them. They keep on killing the bacteria which comes in contact with them.

Microbial coatings can also be applied on the other materials used in the hospital such as hospital gowns and bed sheets, which can prevent infection from the in patients to the staffs and doctor.
Bacteria-killing bandage containing the microbial coating can work by adhering to the gauze bandages, socks and even hospital bedding and gowns by chemically bonding to them. These usually prevent the invasion of the bacteria in the wounds and in the formation of colonies. They are basically super absorbent in nature and they suck all the moisture from the wound and also the pus. Staph infections can be very dangerous if left untreated and the most common source is the hospital. With these bandages nearly 80 percent of bacterial infection can be prevented. The main advantage of such bandages is that in due course of time the bacteria adhered to it cannot become resistant to it because of the structure of the coating, and because of the complexity of the process it is impossible for the bacteria to become resistant. When the moisture is properly controlled and further infection of the bacteria is prevented and healing of the wound starts.

All wounds go through the same basic stages of healing. A wound may fail to heal if one or more of the healing stages are interrupted. The normal wound healing stages include inflammatory stage, Fibroblastic stage, and Maturation stage. The inflammatory stage initiates clothing of the blood by constricting and preventing blood loss. Later there in flow of the blood in the wounded place and the white blood cells destroy microbes and other foreign bodies. In later stages skin is formed and they are strengthened and replacement with new cells gradually takes place.
The bacterial infection on the wound can prevent the healing process and the body instead of healing and restoring the wound fights the infection.
by kpb.kldg at 12-15-2011, 05:21 PM
Do we have any online certification programs in Biotechnology like CCNA etc for Networking professionals.
by shalinibalan at 12-12-2011, 02:10 AM
Modern cytology is named as cell biology. Cell biology approaches the problems of the cell at different levels of organization from molecular level onwards. It forms a common level of convergence of genetics, physiology and biochemistry. Cytology was primarily concerned with the morphology of cell.

A cell is the smallest but complete expression of the fundamental structure and function of all living organisms, which is capable of independent existence and self reproduction in a suitable non living medium. It has the following characteristics:

1. A cell membrane that establishes a boundary regulating all exchanges of matter and energy.
2. A metabolic machinery that can use the energy trapped by the cell or obtained from food stuffs. (Mitochondria)
3. A biosynthetic machinery for the synthesis of protein (RNA and ribosome.)
4. A specific genetic programme in the nucleus that permits the reproduction of the new cells of the same type.

Within cells there is an complicated network of organelles that all have unique functions. These organelles are assigned to perform different functions. The morphology of the cell can be studied under three locations such as surface, cytoplasm and nucleus.

The surface of the cell includes cell wall and plasma membrane or they are also called as cell membrane system.

Cell wall is most commonly found in plant cells which are thick, rigid, non living and formed of cellulose .They are Extracellular structure surrounding plasma membrane ,Whose main function is to protect the cell and control turgity. Cell wall is classified as primary and Secondary cell wall. Primary cell wall is extremely elastic and Secondary cell wall are formed around primary cell wall after growth is complete.

Plasma membrane is the Outer membrane of cell that controls cellular traffic. They are formed of lipid bilayer sandwiched between two protein layers. They perform the function of regulating materials in and out of cell. They help in the maintenance of the cell shape and cell communication.

Cytoplasm or the cytosol is the protoplasm of the cell surrounding the nucleus and enclosed in the plasma membrane. Contains organelles in the Colloidal suspension which may include Centrioles, Chloroplasts, Cytoskeleton, Endoplasmic reticulum, Golgi apparatus, Lysosome, Mitochondria, Ribosomes, and Vacuoles.

Centrioles
They are composed of nine tubes, each with three tubules which occur in the form of pairs in cylindrical shapes near the nucleus. They are actively involved in cell division and are placed at right angles to each other.

Chloroplasts
These are the plastid usually found only in plant cells. They contain green chlorophyll where photosynthesis takes place.

Cytoskeleton
They are composed of microtubules and supports the cell and also provide shape to the cell. They help in the endocytosis and exocytosis of the cell.

Endoplasmic reticulum
They consists of tubular network fused to nuclear membrane which goes through cytoplasm onto cell membrane. They are differentiated into two forms called Smooth Endoplasmic reticulum and Rough Endoplasmic reticulum. The former lacks ribosomes and the later contains ribosomes embedded in surface. These perform the function of storing, separating, and serves as cell's transport system.

Golgi apparatus
This is a membrane structure found near nucleus Composed of numerous layers forming a sac. They are also termed as Protein 'packaging plant' as they perform this function.

Lysosome
These organelles Vary in shape depending on process being carried out. They Transport undigested substances to cell membrane for elimination. Cell breaks down if lysosome explodes.

Mitochondria
Are often termed as the power house of the cell and are the Second largest organelle with unique genetic structure. They are Double-layered outer membrane with inner folds called cristae. Energy-producing chemical reactions take place on cristae.Its function includes recycling and decomposing proteins, fats, and carbohydrates, and forms urea. They Control the level of water and other materials in cell.

Ribosomes Composes 25% of cell's mass. They are small 'protein factories' present in the cell in thousands. They are present in two forms like Stationary and Mobile type. Stationary ones are embedded in rough endoplasmic reticulum and mobile ribosomes injects proteins directly into cytoplasm.

Vacuoles are Membrane-bound sacs for storage, digestion, and waste removal, which contains water solution, helps in water removal in unicellular organisms.

Lastly the cell contains nucleus. They can be one or more per cell and are Spherical in shape. They are dense in from than the surrounding cytoplasm. They consist of Chromosomes, Nuclear membrane, Nucleolus.
by overstock82 at 12-09-2011, 09:29 AM
Here's an article I wrote about some biotech stocks and the industry in general. Hope some of you here find it useful:


The New Solution: Biotechs in the 21st Century

As Europe crumbles and the U.S. economy limps along, we fork over the down-payment on our increasingly globalized society. Modern technology has connected us in so many ways, but rendered industry after industry obsolete in the process. The financial system, as we know it, is deteriorating, and no one has a definitive solution. However, there are always exceptions to the rule, and broadly speaking, healthcare is that exception. Despite corporate cutbacks and bureaucratic hoops, the biotechnology sector should remain competitive and inelastic while other industries buckle under the pressure of time.
We are still mortal, and we still get sick. An authentic fountain of youth eludes the human race. We can transplant organs, perform laser surgery, and prescribe therapies of all forms, but the treatment of some diseases without major side effects has continually mystified the medical world. In the 21st Century, however, new medicines of all kinds, and biologic drugs in particular, have begun to revolutionize the healthcare industry.
For many long-suffering patients of serious conditions such as CNS disorders and auto-immune diseases, the days of popping chemically-synthesized, side-effect inducing pills like steroids and immunosuppressants are quickly coming to a close. The main catalyst for this paradigm shift in the world of medicine is the fast-growing sector of biotech companies which are developing the latest in biologic drugs - medicinal therapies that employ a unique formula of proteins, antibodies, or other “living” entities which exist in human (and sometimes non-human) blood on a cellular level. As these therapies quickly become the go-to drugs for a number of incurable diseases, the companies behind them compete for market attention in an ever-expanding field.
For a sure-fire way to gain a glimpse into the potential success of the fresh-faced young biotech companies cropping up recently, investors need only survey some of the leading drugs now populating the market. For over a decade, Remicade®, developed by once-floundering Centocor in the 90’s (now Janssen Biotech) has been revolutionizing the treatment of Crohn’s and RA by blocking tumor necrosis factor, a cytokine which causes the inflammation involved in these diseases. It is perhaps the most popular biologic in existence, now seeing $2billion in sales after being bought over by Johnson & Johnson: Remicade® is a benchmark for every other burgeoning biologic on the market.

But despite its reputation as a wonder drug, Remicade® is far from infallible. Because the medication was formulated using a mouse protein, long-term users are susceptible to developing antibodies to Remicade®. Thus, in recent years, the medical community has seen a dramatic spike in allergic reactions amongst these patients, which are often so severe that use of Remicade® must be discontinued.

Enter Humira®, manufactured by Abbott Laboratories (ABT), and Cimzia®, manufactured by UCB Group (UCB.BR) to capitalize on this market opportunity. Both of these drugs are different formulations of the TNF-blocking antibody, which use little (Humira®) or no (Cimzia®) mouse protein. That’s great news for former Remicade® patients in need of a powerful biologic alternative. It’s also great news for Abbott Labs and UCB Group, as their respective drugs gain market share in the treatment of diseases whose prevalence sees a stark increase each year, and for investors searching for companies which look to be long-term, steady investments. ABT, which has a recent history of unflinching growth, is trading at 52.81, with a market cap of over $82B and a high average volume of almost 9 million. UCB, which also retains drugs for epilepsy and Parkinson’s in its arsenal, trades at 29.71 EUR with a market cap of over 7 billion dollars.

Outside of the TNF-blocker debacle, another biotech company to watch is Biogen Idec Inc. (BIIB), which manufactures Tysabri®, an increasingly popular biologic for the treatment of Multiple Sclerosis. Already one of the big dogs of the biotech sector, trading at 110.75 with a P/E ratio of 23.07, word is that the company may acquire Human Genome Sciences (HGSI), a move bound to up the ante on its competitors.
Also, Sangamo Biosciences (SGMO) is an exciting biotech with a handful of highly experimental biologics in varying clinical phases. Fueled by its proprietary “SB” series of biologics which utilize “zinc finger DNA-binding proteins” in order to literally perform genetic editing to cells on the fly, Sangamo promises to treat everything from HIV to hemophilia to the genetic mutations that cause “Bubble Boy disease.” From a market perspective, Sangamo is one of the leading young biotechs, trading at 2.60 with a healthy average volume. With a comparatively large number of treatments in development, Sangamo also has plenty of room for growth, giving it an edge over many of its competitors.
And what about neurodegenerative disorders like Parkinson’s disease and Alzheimer’s?
Six million Americans suffer from these fatal ailments, and Parkinson’s disease alone represents a $3 billion global market. According to the Harvard NeuroDiscovery Center, “Because neurodegenerative diseases strike primarily in mid-to-late life, the incidence is expected to soar as the population ages. (By 2030, as many as 1 in 5 Americans will be over the age of 65.) If left unchecked 30 years from now, more than 12 million Americans will suffer from neurodegenerative diseases. Finding treatments and cures for neurodegenerative diseases is a goal of increasing urgency.”
Part of that challenge may be met, as several companies currently clamor for a breakthrough in Parkinson’s disease research and treatment. These biotechs aren’t only on the road to saving lives with phases of clinical trials for new pharmaceuticals. They’re also increasing shareholder value and helping to maintain an entire sector of publicly traded entities. Here are a few of the contenders:
Of course, big players like Novartis AG (NVS) and Sanofi-Aventis (SNY) are in the game. With Novartis’ Comtan (entacapone) medication, the Swiss juggernaut is sitting pretty with a P/E ratio of 10.90, a D/E ratio of less than 50 percent, a market cap of $132.13 billion and tangible dividends.
Sanofi-Aventis, one of the five largest pharmaceutical companies in existence, is working on treatment of Parkinson’s symptoms. With central nervous system disorders as one of their six major areas of focus, this Paris-based company is poised to capitalize on developed countries’ aging populations. With a P/E ratio of 7.64, a market cap of $90.38 billion and a dividend of 1.76, Sanofi-Aventis should retain its post.
Amarantus Biosciences Inc. (AMBS : OTC.BB) and Addex Pharmaceuticals (SIX-ADXN) are also companies to watch as they are both funded in part by grants from the Michael J. Fox Foundation for Parkinson Research. This research money not only provides these companies with a golden endorsement, but perhaps the tools to uncover the next revolutionary treatment.
Since the end of March, Allosteric modulation company Addex Pharmaceuticals has been knee-deep in Phase II clinical trials to evaluate dipraglurant in Parkinson’s patients and expect results next year. This is because the leading Parkinson’s therapeutic, levodopa, induces an even more debilitating movement disorder known as levodopa-induced dyskinesia (PD-LID). Addex trades on the SIX Swiss Exchange main board, has a market cap of $43.1 million CHF and 7.8 million shares outstanding.
Amarantus Biosciences, Inc., a four-year-old biotech out of California, is perhaps even more exciting as it is the rising underdog. The company currently trades on the U.S. Stock Exchange at 12 cents per share with a market cap of $9.72 million, but those numbers should soar as Amarantus’ new potent protein treatment undergoes clinical development. The treatment is called MANF and it’s directed at the cell death (apoptosis) responsible for Parkinson’s disease.
The real beauty of the patented MANF is that it could address a host of other major apoptosis-related diseases including Alzheimer’s disease, epilepsy, macular degeneration and traumatic brain injury. CEO Gerald Commissiong PhD has stated in previous news that AMBS aims to continue filing patents and building a strong intellectual property portfolio from their inventory of 88 cell lines referred to as “PhenoGuard Cell Lines.”
Amarantus has appeared frequently in recent headlines, as the company has expanded and diversified its corporate strategy with the intention of identifying complementary assets and unmet medical needs within its core areas of neuroscience research. In fact, Amarantus has just announced a new collaboration with Banyan Biomarkers to evaluate the efficacy of MANF in treating Traumatic Brain Injury, and the company has consistently attacked the growing biotech market with a number of forward-thinking strategies.
Valeant Pharmaceuticals International (VRX) is also in the mix as the company standing behind Zelapar -- a supplemental once-daily oral therapy for Parkinson’s patients being treated with levodopa/carbidopa. It has a forward P/E of 16.6, a PEG of 0.8 and a market cap of $13.08 billion.
Impax Laboratories (IPXL), trading at 17.85 with a P/E of 21.28 and over a billion market cap, may have a fine new biologic on its hands with IPX066, an extended release drug which improves motor symptoms in Parkinson’s. The drug has reportedly achieved top-line results in a recent Phase 3 clinical study and become a main focus for Impax. In addition, CEO Larry Hsu recently made an insider buy of 5,000 shares in his own company, a move which typically only spells one direction for that particular stock to take.
Despite the alarming state of the macro economy and other sectors, all of the companies mentioned above have clear goals and purposes. Aided by their surefooted ventures into the experimental realm of biologic drugs, they remain relevant and necessary in the postmodern technological age. The risk is sufficiently asymmetrical and the potential for long-term sustainability is high. As far as this financial journalist can tell, healthcare investors should seriously consider hopping on the biotech bandwagon.
by shalinibalan at 12-06-2011, 05:31 AM
When our senses perceive a stress such as danger or a threat, cells in the nervous and endocrine systems work closely together to prepare the body for action. This is referred to as the fight or flight or stress response. The fight or flight response is a complicated systemic reaction. This involves some instantaneous messengers and is accompanied by physiologic changes. Epinephrine is an important chemical cell signaling molecule or messenger in the fight or flight response. Also known as adrenaline, epinephrine is an efficient messenger that signals many cell types throughout the body with many effects,

In fact, the initial sensitivity of a threat or danger is also perceived by a portion in the brain stem that begins yet another axis of communication and response involving the release of the messenger norepinephrine. Like cortisol and epinephrine, norepinephrine travels throughout the body, which triggers cell signaling in all the cell types.

In spite of their kind, or point of origin, cell signaling molecules involved in the fight or flight response work intimately .Their overall effect is an increase in circulation and energy to certain body systems and a downshift of less important ones into maintenance mode.
The response is initiated when the Sensory nerve cells perceive and pass the information of a threat, or stress, from the environment to the hypothalamus located in the brain. Neurosecretory cells in the hypothalamus transmit a signal to the pituitary gland stirring cells there to release a chemical messenger into the bloodstream. Simultaneously, the hypothalamus transmits a nerve signal down the spinal cord. Both the chemical messenger and nerve impulse will travel to the same destination, the adrenal gland.

Adrenal glands which are placed on the top of the kidneys receive nerve and chemical signals activated by cells in the hypothalamus. Nerve signals activate the release of epinephrine into the bloodstream. When they reach the blood stream the receptors on the cell initiate the process of signaling and produce cortisal . This release in the cortisal in the blood stream results in increase in blood pressure, increase in blood sugar levels, and suppression of the immune system.

When nerve cells in the hypothalamus fire, corticotrope cells in the pituitary gland are stimulated to release ACTH, (‘Adrenocorticotrophic hormone'), is a polypeptide tropic hormone which acts as a chemical messenger, into the bloodstream. When the splanchnic nerve in the hypothalamus fires, a signal is sent down the spinal cord directly to the adrenal gland.

These signaling molecules coordinate and work from every part of the boy that provides an energetic boost in a variety of ways. When the chemical messengers like epinephrine binds to receptors on liver cells, it triggers a signaling chain that produces glucose from larger sugar molecules.
Cotisol which circulate in the blood stream transform fatty acids into energy. Which in turn are rapidly excreted into the bloodstream, supplying a boost of readily available energy for muscles throughout the body, priming them for exertion.

The splanchnic nerve stimulates chromaffin cells in the adrenal gland to release epinephrine, a chemical messenger, into the bloodstream. In this way, the fight or flight response prepares the body for extreme action.





by shalinibalan at 12-06-2011, 04:11 AM
Gene tests which are also called DNA-based tests are the most recently used techniques for detecting any genetic disorder .such tests directly involve direct examination of the DNA molecule itself. This process involves extraction of DNA from blood sample or from other body fluids or tissues. The DNA change can vary from small piece or even an entire chromosome which is visible under a microscope. Some genes may be over expressed or inactivated and with some kind of mutation.
Genetic testing in a broader sense includes biochemical tests for the presence or absence of key proteins that signal aberrant genes.

Genetic tests are used for several reasons, including:
• Carrier screening, which involves identifying unaffected individuals who carry one copy of a gene for a disease that requires two copies for the disease to be expressed.
• preimplantation genetic diagnosis
• prenatal diagnostic testing
• newborn screening
• presymptomatic testing for predicting adult-inception disorders such as Huntington's disease
• Presymptomatic testing for estimating the risk of developing adult-beginning cancers and Alzheimer's disease.
• Conformational diagnosis of a symptomatic individual.
• forensic/identity testing

For some types of genetic tests, small pieces of DNA are designed which are termed as probes whose sequences are complementary to the mutated sequences. These probes will seek their complement among the three billion base pairs of an individual's genome. If the mutated sequence is present in the patient's genome, the probe will bind to it and flag the mutation. Another type of DNA testing involves comparing the sequence of DNA bases in a patient's gene to a normal version of the gene. Cost of testing can range from hundreds to thousands of dollars, depending on the sizes of the genes and the numbers of mutations tested.

BENEFITS OF GENE TESTING
A negative result obtained can relieve lot of tension and can eliminate the need for frequent checkups. In case of person who has the family history of cancer can be relieved of unwanted fear. In case the person is diagnosed positive for a particular disease he can be informed and healthy decisions can be made about the future treatments. It can also let a person take steps to reduce risk before disease has a chance to develop

Gene testing can allow families to avoid having children with devastating diseases or identify people at high risk for conditions that may be preventable.

LIMITATIONS OF GENE TESTING
• For example, some disorders that "run in families" can be traced to shared environmental exposures rather than any inherited susceptibility. In addition, some mutations detected by a positive test may never lead to disease. Furthermore, because existing tests look only for the more common mutations in a gene, some disease-causing mutations may escape detection.
• A limitation of all medical testing is the possibility for laboratory errors. These might be due to sample misidentification, contamination of the chemicals used for testing, or other factors.
Many in the medical firm feel that uncertainties surrounding test interpretation, the current lack of available medical options for these diseases, the tests' potential for provoking anxiety, and risks for discrimination and social stigmatization could overshadow the benefits of testing.

SOME CURRENTLY AVAILABLE DNA-BASED GENE TESTS

• Alpha-1-antitrypsin deficiency (AAT; emphysema and liver disease)
• Amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS; Lou Gehrig's Disease; progressive motor function loss leading to paralysis and death)
• Alzheimer's disease* (APOE; late-onset variety of senile dementia)
• Ataxia telangiectasia (AT; progressive brain disorder resulting in loss of muscle control and cancers)
• Gaucher disease (GD; enlarged liver and spleen, bone degeneration)
• Inherited breast and ovarian cancer* (BRCA 1 and 2; early-onset tumors of breasts and ovaries)
• Hereditary nonpolyposis colon cancer* (CA; early-onset tumors of colon and sometimes other organs)
• Central Core Disease (CCD; mild to severe muscle weakness)
• Charcot-Marie-Tooth (CMT; loss of feeling in ends of limbs)
• Congenital adrenal hyperplasia (CAH; hormone deficiency; ambiguous genitalia and male pseudohermaphroditism)
• Cystic fibrosis (CF; disease of lung and pancreas resulting in thick mucous accumulations and chronic infections)
• Duchenne muscular dystrophy/Becker muscular dystrophy (DMD; severe to mild muscle wasting, deterioration, weakness)
• Dystonia (DYT; muscle rigidity, repetitive twisting movements)
• Emanuel Syndrome (severe mental retardation, abnormal development of the head, heart and kidney problems)
• Fanconi anemia, group C (FA; anemia, leukemia, skeletal deformities)
• Factor V-Leiden (FVL; blood-clotting disorder)
• Fragile X syndrome (FRAX; leading cause of inherited mental retardation)
• Galactosemia (GALT; metabolic disorder affects ability to metabolize galactose)
• Hemophilia A and B (HEMA and HEMB; bleeding disorders)
• Hereditary Hemochromatosis (HFE; excess iron storage disorder)
• Huntington's disease (HD; usually midlife onset; progressive, lethal, degenerative neurological disease)
• Marfan Syndrome (FBN1; connective tissue disorder; tissues of ligaments, blood vessel walls, cartilage, heart valves and other structures abnormally weak)
• Mucopolysaccharidosis (MPS; deficiency of enzymes needed to break down long chain sugars called glycosaminoglycans; corneal clouding, joint stiffness, heart disease, mental retardation)
• Myotonic dystrophy (MD; progressive muscle weakness; most common form of adult muscular dystrophy)
• Neurofibromatosis type 1 (NF1; multiple benign nervous system tumors that can be disfiguring; cancers)
• Phenylketonuria (PKU; progressive mental retardation due to missing enzyme; correctable by diet)
• Polycystic Kidney Disease (PKD1, PKD2; cysts in the kidneys and other organs)
• Adult Polycystic Kidney Disease (APKD; kidney failure and liver disease)
• Prader Willi/Angelman syndromes (PW/A; decreased motor skills, cognitive impairment, early death)
• Sickle cell disease (SS; blood cell disorder; chronic pain and infections)
• Spinocerebellar ataxia, type 1 (SCA1; involuntary muscle movements, reflex disorders, explosive speech)
• Spinal muscular atrophy (SMA; severe, usually lethal progressive muscle-wasting disorder in children)
• Tay-Sachs Disease (TS; fatal neurological disease of early childhood; seizures, paralysis)
• Thalassemias (THAL; anemias - reduced red blood cell levels)
Timothy Syndrome (CACNA1C; characterized by severe cardiac arrhythmia, webbing of the fingers and toes called syndactyly, autism)




by shalinibalan at 12-04-2011, 07:50 PM
Genetic memory is a process in which a memory is passed down through the generations without the individual having to any firsthand experience about the topic of the memory." Genetic memory, sometimes called ancestral memory, is, in contrast, the genetic transmission of sophisticated knowledge itself, or they are the genetic transmission of the templates of such knowledge. One might refer to these as the musical chip, artistic chip, calendar-calculating chip or mathematical chip, whatever the individual is related with.

This theory of genetic memory remains a controversy. But a standalone British Biologist by the name of Rupert Sheldrake gave ideas about how we manage to obtain traits through our DNA from our ancestors. He proposed that every living organism has an undetectable field around it called "Morphic fields” that incorporates actions and then passes them on through that Morphic field to their next generation. This was more of a supernatural stand point which many scientists thought was a natural process of "memories" being planted into the DNA structure of every living being. Hence it remained as a theoretical concept that couldn't be proven because nobody could see it with the naked eye or with a microscope. Later many conducted experiments that made it possible.
Genetic memory theory was much proved and was undeniable in the Savant Syndrome patients. Savant syndrome is a rare, but extraordinary, condition in which persons with serious mental disabilities, including autistic disorder, have some 'island of genius' that stands in marked, incompatible contrast to overall handicap. Skills most often exist in art, music, calendar calculating, lightning calculating and mechanical or spatial abilities. Whatever the special skill, it is just related with massive memory which is present exceedingly deep and narrows within the area of the special skill. these skills present in them is often so remarkable that they would be termed at a ‘prodigy’ or ‘genius’ level if present in a non-disabled person. The prodigious savant represents a very high threshold group and there are probably less than 100 such known persons living worldwide at the present time.

These astonishing skills, abilities, knowledge and expertise, most often unexpectedly blow up at an early age, in areas which the savants have neither studied nor had any formal training. Hence prodigious savants innately and instinctively “know” things they have never learned. This was later coined as “collective unconscious.” Or genetic memory.

Leslie, who has never had a music lesson in his life, instinctively knows “the rules of music” according to professional musicians who have met him. George, and his brother Charles, unconsciously know “the rules of mathematics” and can compute multi-digit prime numbers, never having studied them, yet cannot correctly multiply 6 x 5, for example. Alonzo, with no training in art, has access to the “rules of art” which allow him to duplicate three dimension animals from a two dimension photo; he also was able to just instinctively framework his horse figures in order to capture them in motion, a skill other artists train for years to master. A music professor says, about Matt, the 14 year prodigious savant now known around the world as the “Mozart of jazz, He was seemed to know things beyond his own existence. He told that he never composes any but simply wrote down that which was already inscribed on his soul.

He is now a musical genius in his teen years. On a 60 Minutes program in 2006 the parents describe Jay beginning to draw little cellos on paper at age two. Neither parent is musically inclined, and there never were any musical instruments, including a cello, in the home. At age three Jay asked if he could have a cello of his own. The parents took him to a music store and to their astonishment; Jay picked up a miniature cello and began to play it! He had never seen a real cello before that day. After that experience he began to draw his miniature cellos placed on musical lines. By age 5 he had composed five symphonies. By age 15 he had written nine symphonies. His fifth symphony, which was 190 pages and 1328 bars in length, was professionally recorded by the London Symphony Orchestra for Sony records.

Jay says that the music just streams into his head at lightning speed, sometimes several symphonies running simultaneously at the same time. “My unconscious directs my conscious mind at a mile a minute,” he told the correspondent on that 60 Minutes program.

Where does Jay’s musical genius come from? How did he know about cellos, and how to play them at age three when never exposed to one before? How did he instinctively, at that age also “know” the rules of music when he had never studied or learned them?

They come with what was called as software, factory installed. These savants have inborn access to intricate knowledge they never learned off. They remember, genetically, things they have never learned. Genetic memory—factory installed software—exists in the prodigious savant, and believe to exists in all of us. It is a huge reservoir of generally hidden knowledge and talent, which is present in all of us. But the special brain circuitry of the prodigious savant gives them access to that generally buried potential in spectacular fashion, permitting them to ‘know’ things they never learned.

by shalinibalan at 12-03-2011, 04:42 AM
Every organism has a unique body pattern. Although specialized body structures, such as arms and legs, may be similar in makeup but their shapes and details are different in different organisms. During growth of the embryo, arms and legs develop differently due to the actions of special genes, called homeotic genes.

Homeotic genes are genes that specify how structures develop in different segments of the body. Examples of such genes are Hox and ParaHox genes which are important for segmentation. These genes determining where, when, and how body segments develop in flies. Alterations or mutations in these genes may lead to changes in prototypes of body parts, sometimes causing striking effects such as legs growing in place of antennae or an extra set of wings or, in the case of plants, flowers with abnormal numbers of parts. An individual carrying an altered (mutant) version of a homeotic gene is known as a homeotic mutant.

Organisms can continue to exist and be reproductive even with homeotic gene mutations that produce differences in body shape. This means that homeotic mutations can be an effective means for evolutionary change.
For example, in a mammal, a single homeotic mutation might produce an arm that is shorter, or longer, or broader. Regardless, it will probably still look and work like an arm.

A change in body shape may sometimes lead to its advantage. For example, the mutation may allow it to capture food more effectively or be more attractive in some way. In this case, then the mutant organism may have greater reproductive fitness. And naturally the genes may be passed on to the preceding generations, which may lead to influencing the course of evolution.

These genes were studied in fruit flies having bizarre mutations. They correlated mutations in different genes with transformations in the flies' body patterns.

One example of a homeotic transformation in fruit flies - antenna to leg.
Research led by biologist Ed Lewis, studied fruit flies that had legs growing out of their heads in place of antennae! They found that a mutation in a single gene, called Antennapedia, made this phenotypical change. Scientists believe that this mutation changes not only the antennal structure, but makes that entire segment of the fruit fly's body develop as if it were a different segment.

Dr. Lewis's work depicted that antennal cells carry all of the information necessary to become leg cells. As per the general principle, every cell having its own DNA caries all the information necessary to build the entire organism.

Genes that determine body pattern have common sequence characteristics.
Researchers found while studying the DNA sequences of many genes which controls the body pattern, that each contains a similar stretch of about 180 nucleotides within its sequence. They named this stretch of genes as a homeobox, and classified all genes containing it as homeotic genes. The homeobox is only a portion of each gene. For example, if the words below were homeotic genes, the capital letters would represent the homeobox:
• togeTHEr
• THEoretical
• gaTHEring
• boTHEr

These show the gene expression seen in the fruit fly. Each of the genes in the homeotic complexes is responsible for controlling body pattern in a particular region. It is also noted that the genes in the chromosome are arranged in an order corresponding to the order they appear on the body.
Researchers were curious to know whether organisms other than fruit flies also had homeotic genes that regulated body patterning. It was found that Homeobox sequences found in most mammalian genes are very similar to those in fruit flies. These sequences have been conserved throughout evolution without much change.

Gene sequences sustained over evolutionary time are important to the basic development of even distantly related organisms. For example, flour beetles and fruit flies share a cluster of homeobox genes, called the homeotic complex or HOM-C, that are very similar in sequence and function.

Genes in different organisms that share similar sequence and function are called homologous. The insect HOM-C gene cluster also shares homology with Hox gene complexes in mammals.
by shalinibalan at 12-03-2011, 02:54 AM
Epigenetics is the study of heritable changes passed on through either mitosis or meiosis. This involves mechanisms other than changes in the underlying DNA sequence. Mechanisms involve changes in the genome without a change in the nucleotide sequence. Examples of such changes are DNA methylation or histone deacetylation, processes which suppresses gene expression without altering the sequence of the silenced genes. Essential epigenetic reprogramming events occur during germ cell development and early embryogenesis in mammals.

Understanding the mechanisms involved in the initiation, maintenance, and heritability of epigenetic states is an important aspect of research in current biology. Several distinct but interconnected molecular pathways have been discovered to date.

Brain is the very important organ of the body remains flexible and responsive to the outside world. Other than receiving signals from the various body parts they also receive from the outside world, the brain allows us to form memories and learn from our experiences. Many brain functions are accompanied at the cellular level by changes in gene expression. Epigenetic mechanisms such as histone modification and DNA methylation stabilize gene expression, which is important for long-term storage of information.

Such epigenetic changes in the brain may lead to brain diseases such as mental illness and addiction. Understanding epigenetics in the brain may help solve numerous such problems and may lead to effective treatments for brain diseases.

Interestingly it was studied by Dr. Moshe Szyf, Professor of Pharmacology and Therapeutics at McGill University, that there was an association between certain epigenetic patterns, suicide, and child abuse.

Scientists are just starting to study how changes in epigenetic tags affect behavior, and how behavior can change epigenetic tags. Some of the following are listed below.

• People who commit suicide have less-active ribosomal RNA (rRNA) genes than people who die of other causes. In people who commit suicide, Methyl levels are higher on rRNA genes in a part of the brain called the hippocampus, which is important for learning and memory. More methyl leads to less production of rRNA, which in turn leads to fewer ribosomes and less protein production.
• Children who are abused leave behind an epigenetic mark or a tag on the brain .it was noted that only the abused victims had mark on the GR gene and not those who committed suicide. Interestingly, the GR gene receives a similar epigenetic tag in rat pups who receive low quality care from their mothers.
• CBP is a protein that is needed for the activation of genes which are involved in learning and memory. One of its functions is to add acetyl tags to histones .It’s an epigenetic modification found on active genes. Even one defective copy of CBP gene causes Rubinstein-Taybi syndrome, a condition with a variety of characteristics, including mental disability.
• Reelin is an important potein in the brain needed for shaping the brain early in development and later on for learning. The gene for REELIN protein has less methyl and hence it is more active than normal in schizophrenic brains.
• One scan of epigenetic markers in the brain differentiated about 60 genes that are different between psychiatric patients and healthy people. Many of these genes code for proteins that are important for signaling between brain cells.
• Some drugs that are administered to treat mental sickness work by changing gene expression taking place in the brain .These changes in gene expression are stabilized through epigenetic mechanisms (DNA methylation and histone modification), reversing the effects of the disease.
• When a person is addicted to cocaine, they trigger epigenetic changes in certain brain regions which affects and damages hundreds of genes at a time. Some of them remain for a longer time than expected in the brain system. Research says that some of the long-term effects of drug abuse and addiction and high rates of their relapses are marked in epigenetic code.

There are three groups of signals that conclude in the establishment of a stably heritable epigenetic state: a signal that we to call the “Epigenator,” which originate from the environment and triggers an intracellular pathway; an “Epigenetic Initiator” signal, which responds to the Epigenator and is needed to define the precise location of the epigenetic chromatin environment; and an “Epigenetic Maintainer” signal, which sustains the chromatin environment in the first and subsequent generations.



by shalinibalan at 12-02-2011, 04:37 AM
Saliva and saliva-stained materials were examined and said to be a potential sources of deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA) for DNA analysis and identity testing. This was done by isolating DNA and DNA banding patterns suitable for DNA typing were obtained from fresh saliva and various saliva-stained materials, such as envelopes, buccal swabs, gags, and cigarettes.

Furthermore, DNA and DNA banding patterns were obtained from samples containing mixed saliva or semen stains. The DNA banding patterns obtained from saliva or saliva-stained material were impossible to differentiate from the patterns obtained from blood or hair from the same person. DNA banding patterns were obtained from saliva stored at 20 degrees from the isolated DNA and also from dried saliva stains stored under different conditions. This lead to the conclusion that saliva and saliva-stained material can be good sources of DNA for analysis and for DNA typing in certain forensic settings.

Interestingly it was found in a study supported by the National Institute of Dental Research, that when we lick an envelope, we may be sending a more detailed information than we realize. Our saliva leaves a DNA fingerprint that not only says who we are, but also tells that whether we have any genetic tendency for certain diseases. This makes saliva a promising alternative to blood as a source of DNA for genetic testing,

It was found out by Drs. Rob van Scheme and Mark Wilson at the State University of New York that even minor differences such as difference in bases or detect person-to-person differences of as little as a single nucleotide, or structural unit, in the genes. This seemingly small difference in gene structure is known to affect the proper functioning of the immune system.

Diseases potentially connected to these genes include childhood respiratory infections, lupus and juvenile periodontal disease (LJP), a particularly aggressive form of gum disease that occurs in young adults.
As the saliva was believed to have genes that can be screened for genetic diseases, young children can be tested earlier for susceptibility to LJP.

Saliva has other apparent advantages over blood as a clinical tool; being a substitute for blood it opens doors to wide range of population which were not easily accessible. Drawing blood is very invasive and it is not a practical procedure for children or individuals that can't give blood for religious or medical reasons. It is also a frightening prospect for most adults. Provided they can be easily collected, stored and shipped which can be obtained at low cost in sufficient quantities for analysis. They are easy to purify than blood samples.

Forensic scientists can retrieve enough saliva from a postage stamp to identify the person that licked the stamp. Saliva has also been used to test for fragile X syndrome, a rare genetic disorder that causes mental retardation in children who carry the gene.

The technology that allows tiny amounts of salivary DNA to be examined in such detail is a procedure called polymerase chain reaction, or PCR. PCR can be used to replicate small pieces of DNA a billion fold, and with such accuracy minor differences in gene structure are readily distinguishable in laboratory tests. The method is so sensitive one milliliter of saliva (approximately 1/5 teaspoon) yields enough DNA to do over one hundred separate tests. PCR has also been used to identify very small amounts of DNA obtained from fossilized animals, forensic specimens and infectious microorganisms.

Although saliva has the potential to reveal variations in any gene whose sequence is known, but this not proved to b an universal application. Investigators caution that as DNA in saliva comes from many sources, including blood, tissue cells and non-human DNA from bacteria and food particles. Each human gene will have to be validated for accurate PCR identification -- and the number of disease-related genes that have been identified is rapidly growing.

Recently it was proved that adults have a genetic marker for periodontal (gum) disease and hence can be screened with saliva at earlier stage. . Other important possibilities would be the genes for Alzheimer's disease, cystic fibrosis or breast cancer. As the structure of more genes becomes known, it may be possible to test for many genetic disorders from a single sample of saliva.
by shalinibalan at 12-02-2011, 02:48 AM
DNA construction, which is commonly known as DNA cloning or recombinant DNA technology. It is one of the most important and very useful tools for modern biotechnology, genetic studies, medical research, and the development of advanced biofuels.

Recently Nathan Hillson, a biochemist at the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)’s Joint BioEnergy Institute (JBEI),has developed the most easy and economic DNA construction software . The name of the DNA construction software program is j5.This also identifies which strategy would be the most cost-effective.

This the only special software package today that both standardizes and cost-optimizes the DNA construction process, this is done by the design of short DNA sequences which are used to join longer sequences together in recombinant DNA processes.Over all this newly developed software , improves the precision, scalability, and cost-effectiveness of DNA construction.

Basic of DNA construction includes the process of physically assembling fragments of DNA sequences. Such kind of constructed DNA are very helpful in developing new medical treatments and for modifying or engineering microbes to proficiently carry out a specific task which may include converting cellulosic biomass into dirt free, green, renewable transportation fuels.

The incorporation of the DNA sequence fragments in the DNA construction process are often referred to as parts. These parts are from different organisms are inserted into a self-replicating genetic element, such as a bacterial plasmid, that will multiply the assembled parts in a host cell. Conventionally, this has been achieved through the use of restriction enzymes for splicing desired DNA sequence fragments, and ligation enzymes for bonding the fragments to plasmid cloning sites.
As the size of the plasmids increases because of the more number of parts being incorporated conventional construction of recombinant DNA assemblies becomes ever more difficult. The whole process must be started all over again for alternate combinations of parts, cloning; every time a different gene or fragment is cloned different pair of restriction sites are being used. This a very exhaustive and time-consuming process. In addition to that the Traditional DNA construction methods result in scars in uncontrolled portions of the DNA.This takes place at DNA fragment junctions that can adversely affect function.

With current DNA construction techniques, a small number of enzymes can be used over and over again, independent of the DNA sequence fragments being assembled, and which enables automation with robotic platforms. However, designing protocols for these modern DNA construction approaches can be as tedious, time-consuming and error-prone as the traditional approach. To prevent these usually outsourcing of DNA portion are done by companies that chemically synthesize long sequences of DNA, this is because they are less costly .

To overcome all these problems j5 software for the DNA construction was developed which provides a single design for the SLIC, Gibson, CPEC and Golden Gate DNA assembly strategies and guides us to determine which can be the best and advantageous for a given construction project.
Hence the j5 software package is a Web-based computer application that automatically designs and optimizes state-of-the-art DNA construction protocols. The main advantage of this program over the conventional methods is that, they determine the optimal flanking sequences that should be attached to each DNA part to produce the desired recombinant DNA within minutes and are also least expensive .these is usually executable by hand or robotics.

The j5 software package controls the DNA sequence at every single base pair which is the ability of combinatorial libraries. Combinatorial libraries are the collections of hundreds to millions of related DNA assemblies, each with a different combination of genes or parts that perform similar functions in different organisms. These libraries allow scientists to choose the most effective genetic combination to get preferred result, e.g., the most efficient production of a biofuel or medication in a given host. No other automated DNA cloning software does this on the same scale and as fast and effectively as j5.

The j5 software package is has a graphical interface that enables users to design a DNA construct or combinatorial libraries though the arrangement of individual part logos that theoretically resemble the underlying DNA sequence. The result obtained or the outputs are in the form of user-friendly spreadsheets that detail the resulting designed experimental protocols which provides instructions that can either be followed by a person in the laboratory or fed directly into a robotic platform for a machine to carry out.

As a result, researchers can direct their resources to investigating their primary interests, rather than preparing the DNA that is merely a tool in their experiments.
by latkan at 11-28-2011, 04:49 AM
Hey guys I'm a new member here and stumbled upon this forum when i was looking for help for my bioprocessing project. I must note that there are few forums dedicated to this field a stark contrast to the field's actual size! Someone somewhere is missing a trick.

Anyway my problem is to do with the average disc-stack centrifuge with intermittent discharge. I'm using a program called Biosolve to show how cell engineered nuclease affects the standard platform for fab production using e coli. I have to mass balance by hand the centrifuge but i am unsure as how to do it. My supervisor was not very helpful in this matter, she only stated that i would need the density of the average fab, and the average % yield of a centrifuge. I am really stuck as to what factors i need to consider and what it is i need to do. Any help would be really helpful and greatly appreciated.

P.S. for example,I know 1000L of e coli broth is being harvested by the centrifuge, i know that a certain % of the broth has viable fab's and im thinking that the density will help somehow.

Thanks guys,

Latkan
by johnmarsh at 11-09-2011, 12:38 AM
hi there

My background isn't in science. More in science fiction.

But someone has to visualise the future before it is made fact. E.g. Arthur C. Clarke and the communications satellite.

I'm disturbed by the lack of vision regarding the energy sources which will replace fossil fuels.

So here's an extreme vision for the future. Is it viable?

1. Electricity will be generated by custom made organisms.

2. Houses will be lit by slime painted on the walls, containing the same light emitting cells as are present in deep sea organisms.

3. Houses will be heated by over-sized GMO hearts, pumping warm blood around a radiator system, and fed on food waste.

So there's the vision. But is it possible? Electric eels generate power. Lemons can light a bulb. Can these properties be enhanced a millionfold, then utilized in our daily lives?

If they can, perhaps we can sidestep future Fukushimas?

Thanks for looking. I'm feeling pretty humble here, as my only science degree is in the social sciences.

Steve
by tansel.ozyer at 10-27-2011, 05:10 PM
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University of Calgary



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by Reshma Vohra at 10-25-2011, 05:48 PM
Seeking a quick guidance, can the parent's genetic disorder affect a child in third generation in a family?

To elaborate, for e.g ; a boy's family (father's side) has a background of genetic disorder (2 cases where a child is born with an immature brain as per age). If he marries a girl having no such background of genetic disorder, then what are the chances of this disorder getting evolved to the child of this couple?

I don't know whether i have framed the question correctly as I don't have a background of medicine and science. I am into Human Resource field. I am registered in this forum just to ask this question to the people who have quite a good exposure into this field.

Please help as it can help me take a decision of life....
Thank you very much in anticipation.

Regards,
Reshma Vohra
(reshma.vohra@gmail.com)
by Biotech_Girl_FTW at 10-24-2011, 02:15 AM
I need the entire genome sequence of Clostridium thermocellum or at least the gene that allows the microbe to degrade cellulose. Any suggestions?

Sarah

"The mind is everything, what you think you become."
by pjbosc at 10-12-2011, 03:39 AM
International Stem Cell CEO, Ken Aldrich said - Last week's newspapers carried the news of what was widely described as a significant 'breakthrough' in stem cell science: the first successful human use of a technology known as Somatic Cell Nuclear Transfer (also referred to as SCNT). This is essentially a variation on a process that was used some years ago to create a cloned sheep named Dolly. Cloning has since been used commercially in various animal applications.

What is strange about the flurry of publicity about this discovery, however, is the almost total lack of commentary about a method of creating stem cells that has been available to researchers for almost half a decade, holds the same kind of promise as embryonic stem cells for providing cells for the treatment of almost any kind of degenerative disease, is free of ethical issues (including issues with egg donation), and can potentially make immune matched cells available to any patient anywhere in the world, on demand, at a far lower cost.

I am talking about human stem cells derived from a process called, “Parthenogenesis”, developed and first announced in 2007 by a company called International Stem Cell Corporation, whose discoveries were first published in the peer reviewed journal, Cloning and Stem Cells, edited by the scientist who first created “Dolly”, the first cloned animal.

I realize that I could be accused of bias because I am one of the founders of International Stem Cell, but, in fact, our company also owns license rights to some of the key intellectual property that is required to create cells through SCNT technology and our scientists are very familiar with its promise and its limitations. As a result, International Stem Cell will benefit from the development of either technology, but it is important that the public and the scientific community be fully aware of all alternatives in the field of regenerative medicine, not just the ones that capture public imagination at any particular time.

For that reason, I would like to comment on Parthenogenesis and compare it to SCNT technology and the other options available today. The technology known as "Parthenogenesis" begins with human eggs that are created and used every day throughout the world for in-vitro fertilization (IVF). What is not generally known is that the IVF process can often result in the creation of far more unfertilized eggs than will ever be needed for fertility purposes. It is possible, with informed consent from the IVF patient, to hold back some unfertilized eggs for creation of parthenogenetic stem cells, all at no additional risk to the donor.

Instead of wasting those eggs, what International Stem Cell does, with the full consent of the donors, is to save those eggs from the trash bin, induce them through a simple, but patented, process to create the small cluster of cells from which a stem cell line can be created that can be used for scientific research and the eventual treatment of patients with such diseases as Parkinson’s, Macular Degeneration, Liver Disease, Diabetes, and possibly many others.

What are critical to understand in thinking about Parthenogenetic stem cells are six things:
Like embryonic stem cells and SCNT cells, these cells can be converted into almost any cell in the human body and thus have enormous potential for human therapy.

Unlike embryonic stem cells, the human eggs used to create parthenogenetic stem cells are never fertilized and cannot become a human being. No viable embryo is ever harmed or destroyed.

Unlike SCNT cells, parthenogenetic stem cells require no genetic manipulation or insertion of foreign DNA.

No donor is every subjected to any additional physical risk beyond what she has already agreed to as part of the IVF procedure in which she elected to participate. In fact, all egg donors voluntarily participate through a very transparent, peer-reviewed, and medically supervised process. Protocols are approved by Independent Review Boards (IRBs) to protect the safety of donors and by an independent Stem Cell Research Oversight (SCRO) committee to insure compliance with state laws and research ethics, regulations established by the U.S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA) and the U.S. Department of Health and Human Services (HHS) Office for Human Research Protections, in addition to state-level requirements.

The cell lines that are produced from this method, unlike cell lines from embryonic stem cells or from SCNT, can potentially be matched to millions of people in the same way that an organ transplant is matched between donor and patient. In fact, by some estimates, as few as 100 parthenogenetic stem cell lines could provide immune-matched cells to over 50 percent of the world’s population, and could accelerate disease therapies and treatments for severe chronic conditions, including diabetes, spinal cord injuries, liver diseases, blinding diseases such as macular degeneration, and neural diseases such as Parkinson’s and Alzheimer’s.

The possibility of immune-matching to millions of persons can vastly reduce the potential costs relative to SCNT or embryonic stem cell technology, which create stem cell lines that can match only a few persons.

In summary, what we find particularly exciting about Parthenogenesis is that it addresses all the major issues of stem cell therapy. It is free from the traditional bioethical issues that have clouded federal policies towards stem cell research because parthenotes are derived from unfertilized eggs and cannot develop into human beings. Parthenogenesis is not cloning, and it does not involve the creation or destruction of a viable human life. Also, the creation of a parthenogenetic stem cell bank will not require a large number of human eggs and many individual donors, as has been a fear surrounding other stem cell approaches. Parthenogenesis is at once effective and efficient, and one line of parthenogenetic stem cells can be used to create treatments for millions of persons. This is not a situation where one line must be made for each patient treated."
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