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by sahaab at 07-08-2012, 02:39 AM
Dear can anyone extend their expertise to help me out in constructing engineered microoroganism for biodegradation of pesticides.
by candywhy at 07-05-2012, 01:25 PM
Recently, the internationally renowned Journal of Cell Science published the latest MCFD2 research results of researchers from the Institute of Genetics and Developmental Biology, Max-Planck of Biophysics, Institute of Chemistry, "Opposite and kept in redundant roles of the two of Drosophila Perilipins in lipid mobilization, "the article, the article, the researchers found only two Drosophila PAT family proteins Plin1 and Plin2 lipolysis both same and opposite regulation function, revealing the MCL-1 Drosophila PAT family proteins in lipid complex functions in the solution, provided a strong theoretical basis for the subsequent parsing of the PAT family proteins function in the evolutionary.Corresponding author of the article is of Genetics and Developmental Biology, Huang Hoon researcher Huang Hsun Laboratory doctoral Bi Junfeng and extension of co-first author of the paper. The Mcpt1 study was completed, and the cooperation of the Max Planck Institute for Biophysical Chemistry, Germany Ronald P. Kühnlein Laboratory, funded by the Chinese Academy of Sciences, Ministry of Science and Technology and the National Natural Science Fund Committee of.Lipids is an important form of energy storage in vivo lipid metabolism balance is very important to keep the Mdga2 human body. Lipid metabolism disorders can cause high blood lipids, insulin resistance, diabetes and fatty liver and other diseases. Cells, lipids are mainly the form of neutral lipids such as triglycerides and cholesterol ester storage is lipid droplets (lipid droplets).

PAT family proteins are highly conserved and specific localization in the lipid droplet MDH1 surface protein. Previous work found that the PAT family proteins are involved in the regulation of lipolysis. However, in vivo PAT family proteins among members of the division of labor coordination of lipid solution is still not clear.In this article, the researchers Drosophila model organisms and found that only two Drosophila PAT family protein Plin1 and Plin2 lipolysis both the same and opposite regulatory functions. Mutant and overexpression strains the fat cell phenotype analysis found that the Plin1 promote lipolysis, while Plin2 inhibition of lipolysis the Plin1 and Plin2.Further studies showed that, the Plin1 lipase HSL from the cytoplasmic localization to the surface of lipid droplets is a must. Fat cells of the Plin1 and Plin2 pairs of mutants, the lipid droplet size and lipid content was significantly lower than Plin1 and Plin2 the single mutants, the instructions Plin1 inhibit lipolysis function. The study also found that Plin1 unique C-terminal domain determines its different functions between Plin2.This study reveals the complex functions of the Drosophila PAT family proteins in lipolysis for the follow-up parsing the PAT family proteins function in the evolution to provide a strong theoretical basis.Hsun Huang researcher graduated from Xiamen University, researcher at the Institute of Genetics and Developmental Biology, Institute since 2006, selected the Hundred, the main research direction is the genetic control of animal development and disease.Last year, his lab has published articles in the PLoS Genetics journal, reveals a new mechanism for the accumulation of lipids ectopic. The new study found that the control genes, ectopic accumulation of lipid droplets and to elucidate the molecular mechanism laid the foundation for subsequent large-scale mining.
by candywhy at 07-04-2012, 12:12 PM
Recently, Marta de Antonio from Barcelona, Spain, the researchers published in American Heart Journal, the study said, for patients with NQO2 chronic heart failure in real life, hs-cTnT can provide important predictive information for their future risk of death occurred.Heart failure remains high mortality rate. People are biological markers that reflect the different pathophysiological NR1H2 pathways to be evaluated in order to better stratify the risk of death. The purpose of this study was to assess of hs-cTnT, NT-proBNP in combination in real life, out-patient heart failure patient cohort mortality risk stratification in value.Researchers from the heart failure unit treated 876 patients (median age: 70.3 years, median left ventricular NR1H3 ejection fraction (LVEF): 34%). In addition to the risk of death has been determined predictors (age, gender, LVEF, New York Heart Association functional classification, diabetes mellitus, the estimation of glomerular filtration rate, the cause of ischemia, sodium intake, hemoglobin, receive β-blockers treatment, receiving ACEI or ARB therapy), the researchers further joint application to reflect the indicators of myocardial injury and myocardial NR1H4 contractility-hs-cTnT and NT-proBNP-to assess the risk of death in patients with heart failure. Median follow-up of 41.4 months, a total of 311 patients died. Multivariate Cox proportional hazards model analysis showed that hs-cTnT and NT-proBNP are independent predictors of mortality (p = 0.003; p = 0.003). Two at the same time increased (more than normal cut-off point value) significantly increased the death risk (HR HR 7.42; [95% CI, 5.23-10.54]; P <.001). Has established a predictive NR1I2 model of mortality risk factors were hs-cTnT and NT-proBNP into the contain, the predictive value of the model significantly improved. Comprehensive identification, correction and re-classification analysis, hs-cTnT in predicting heart failure death is better than NT-proBNP (net re-classified index of 7.7% and 1.5% respectively).

The researchers believe that patients with chronic heart failure in real life, hs-cTnT provide important predictive information to their future risk of death occurred. Hs-cTnT and NT-proBNP into the established mortality risk factors in the prediction model can better stratify the risk of death in patients with heart failure.
by candywhy at 07-03-2012, 12:03 PM
Scientists create cells constitute the vascular wall; this study may lead to new LYVE1 treatments for cardiovascular disease and better screening methods. Cambridge University scientists have for the first time with the patient's skin cells to produce different types of vascular smooth muscle cells (of SMCs, constitute the cells of the blood vessel wall).The study was partially funded by the Wellcome Trust, the findings in the June 13 published in "Nature - Biotechnology" (Nature Biotechnology).1/3 in the UK, the total number of LYZ deaths due to cardiovascular disease. Most of which is due to atherosclerosis caused by a blood vessel in the "scale" and embolism. For those patients not suitable for traditional stents or bypass treatment, an option in the future may grow new blood vessels to bypass their own blocked blood vessels.Corresponding author of the MAD2 study, the Wellcome Trust Intermediate Fellow of the University of Cambridge, Dr. Sanjay Sinha, said: "This study represents an important step, will have the ability to create the correct type of smooth muscle cells use to build new blood vessels. Other patients may benefit from these new blood vessels, including those in need of vascular grafts for dialysis patients with renal failure.In the study, scientists used embryonic MAD2L stem cells (or similar cells derived from skin samples of patients), they have the potential to form various types of body cells are called pluripotent cells (hPSCs). The use of human pluripotent stem cells (hPSCs), they found a method of manufacturing high purity vascular smooth muscle. Before employing more than capable cells (hPSCs) to produce blood cells and myocardial cells, this study is the 1BP first time in a system developed out of the main types of vascular smooth muscle cells, and this system can easily scale for clinical level of production.

Vascular smooth muscle cells derived from different tissues in the early embryo, scientists have been able to reproduce the three different types of embryonic tissue in a dish. Interestingly, these smooth muscle cells (SMCs), the response of the material (such as growth factors) can lead to vascular Madcam1 disease vary, depending on which they are the source of embryonic way. They concluded that the embryonic origin of the differences may determine some of the common vascular diseases (such as aortic aneurysm or atherosclerosis, etc.) played a part in when and where to form. Sinha added: "Using this system, we can begin to understand the origin of the smooth muscle cells (SMCs) is how to affect the development of vascular disease and why the blood vessels in some areas to be protected against the disease affects.""In addition, there are many patients suffering from a hereditary disease (such as Marfan syndrome), it affects the vascular smooth muscle cells and lead to premature cell death and disability. Through this study, the use of manufacturing by the patient skin samples pluripotent stem cells (hPSCs), we will be able to in a lab dish to create a disease carry a genetic abnormality smooth muscle cells. such 'plates' model will allow us to better understand the disease and allows us to filter some new method of treatment. "
by candywhy at 07-02-2012, 12:39 PM
Autophagy is an important degradation mechanism in the cell by autophagy, intracellular delivery of aging proteins to lysosomes for degradation. Early studies suggested that autophagy is mainly an adaptive response of the state of hunger. However, recent studies suggest that, in the course of neurodegenerative diseases, tumors, pathogen infection, autophagy play a significant role, even without the presence of any abnormal protein, loss of autophagy can lead to diseases. The expression of autophagy-related gene (ATG) has an important role in the maturation of autophagy regulation, the different stages of the formation of autophagosomes, different ATG molecular regulation. To be sure, ATG, genes play an important role in the process of autophagy, but must be clear ATG molecules involved in the formation of a series of molecular mechanisms of autophagy is still lack of identification and testing materials. ATG5 is the formation of an important gene for autophagy, in order to study the role of autophagy in disease, in vitro expression and purification of the reorganization of ATG5, and preparation of a polyclonal anti-ATG5 antibody, in order to study autophagy and development testing and research tools.Cell autophagy and cell phagocytosis is the intrusion of cellular defense in two different but related process, phagocytosis of extracellular antigens wrapped and endocytosis, autophagy can be wrapped in the cytoplasm of pathogens, proteins and organelles of the double-layer membrane structure, followed by phagosome or combined autophagosomes with lysosomes and decomposition of the contents. Autophagy plays an important role in cell growth, development and disease.

With the successful identification of key molecules involved in autophagic programmed cell death pathway, the molecular mechanism of autophagy, the physiological function and role in the pathological process in a better understanding. Relative to the major degradation of the short half-life of protein ubiquitin - proteasome system, cells, autophagy is involved in the vast majority of long half-life of protein degradation. On the morphology, the development of autophagic vacuoles wrapped with bilayer membrane degeneration and necrosis of the cell and part of the cytoplasm, autophagic vacuoles, since macrophages bubble's outer membrane with the lysosomal membrane fusion, the material of the endometrium and its packages into the lysosomal lumen, the lysosomal enzyme hydrolysis. The study found that ATG5 as the cells switch for autophagy and apoptosis, plays an important regulatory functions in the occurrence of autophagy and development. Autophagic vacuoles in the early stages, ATG12-ATG5-ATG16I the formation of complexes of its outer membrane combination, this combination on the one hand promote stretching expansion of autophagic vacuoles, so that by the beginning of the small vesicles half ring structure; ATG5 complex and autophagic vacuoles membrane binding also promotes microtubule associated protein light chain 3 (LC3.) to the autophagic vacuoles move and concentrate. ATG5 complex in the membrane position determines the bending direction of the membrane, the membrane extending toward the direction of the ATG5 complex. When located in the bilayer membrane structure of autophagic vacuoles form a closed circular shape, or just closed ATG5 complex will be from the down by double-layer membrane, leaving only the membrane-bound form of LC3.-II autophagy taking a dip. Studies have shown that macrophages lack ATG5 lysosomes can not be fusion with the phagosome. In addition, Yousefi, a ATG5 was calcium-dependent neutral protease the caplain specific cutting the proteins transferred from the cytoplasm to the mitochondria, and anti-apoptotic molecule Bcl-X regulation of cytochrome C release and caspase activation and thus significantly to promote apoptosis.
by moelke at 07-01-2012, 04:25 AM
Hello, I am a vocational rehabilitation counselor who is trying to help a quadriplegic choose an appropriate college major/career. His stated interest to me was to study DNA using the convergence of computers and biology. After a chunk of research on my part it appears the field he is interested in is Bioinformatics [though I've seen genetic engineer, gene sequencer and other job titles].

The young man is wheelchair dependent, but has functioning bicep muscles that let him use his arms and hands to type, but not very quickly [lower arms/hands are fully paralyzed]. I emailed a noted Bioinformatician and he said the field is divided into two job types: Bioinformaticians who require very heavy coding and Annotators who are basically just biologists who do light work part time. He said there's no in-between.

The worst thing that can happen is for him to take out enormous loans and spend years of his life working towards a goal that is unrealistic. If heavy coding is an essential job function, employers will likely not have to reasonably accommodate him under the Americans with Disability Act. It is imperative he choose a career path/major wisely now.

Any information you can provide on the job, or suggestions for a more appropriate alternate career in the field, would be immensely helpful.

by candywhy at 06-29-2012, 07:47 PM
Hypoxic-ischemic brain damage (HIBD) occur in approximately 6 per 1,000 live births, 25% -30% of the survivors may leave some type of long-term sequelae. The study found that hypoxia, ischemia, low sugar, the ATP depletion, a large number of free radicals such as calcium overload can trigger endoplasmic reticulum stress (ERS), the start of the unfolded protein response (of UPR). Eukaryotic activate the transcription factor (ATF4) is the key factor of the PKR-like endoplasmic reticulum kinase (the PERK)-mediated UPR pathway. Shenfu injection main components of ginseng saponin and Aconitum alkaloids have a protective effect on brain injury.

But see note whether the injection from the cerebral protective effects by reducing the ERS, has yet to see the related reports.In the normal state, the PERK dimerization sites immunoglobulin binding protein (the Bip) cover, no endonuclease activity. ERS, a large number of Bip protein was used in conjunction with the unfolded protein PERK free, polymerization, phosphoric acid, so that the PERK itself to activate the substrate and catalyze eIF2 phosphorylation. Involved in mammalian cell protein translation initiation complex formation, eIF2 protein A, B, C, three kinds of subunits, A serine can be phosphorylated in. Phosphorylated eIF2 can inhibit the GDP-GTP exchange function, making the eIF2 can not be reused, reducing the start codon recognition rate, thus inhibiting protein synthesis in the boot process to reduce the level of translation. Although eIF2 phosphorylation lead to overall translational repression, but it can still specifically induced increase ATF4 mRNA translation. ATF4 expression, including the endoplasmic reticulum stress in cells is dependent on PERK-mediated eIF2 phosphorylation.ATF4 to regulate C / EBP homologous protein, growth arrest and DNA damage inducible protein 34 and activating transcription factor 3 (of ATF3) expression, which, of ATF3 also promote CHOP and GADD34 expression. CHOP and endoplasmic reticulum stress-induced apoptosis by down-regulating expression of Bcl-2 expression, increase Bim expression, depletion of glutathione, the promotion of ROS generation, activation of caspase-3, ultimately leading to cell apoptosis.Results found that the the HIBD ischemia in neonatal rat lateral prefrontal cortex of eIF2, ATF4 protein levels increase, showed that of eIF2, the ATF4 involved in the the HIBD pathological physiological processes. The HIBD likely to start the PERK-mediated UPR pathway.
by biomedinfo at 06-28-2012, 02:47 PM
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by candywhy at 06-27-2012, 11:52 AM
Each year, about 30,080 over the age of stroke patients. A for general enzyme - a thrombolysis injection L1CAM drugs - but not approved for the treatment of stroke patients over the age of 80. Although the drug can be used for ischemic stroke, heart attack, pulmonary embolism, but the drug is safe and effective time window for stroke treatment is still controversial. Two published in the Lancet study reveals A benefit for the S & P enzyme to enable stroke patients over the age of 80, and the clear value of Lag3 early treatment.The first study reported that the 3rd International Stroke Trial (IST-3) results. In the trial, the University of Edinburgh, Western General Hospital, Professor Peter Sandercock, evaluated 3035 patients, involving 156 hospitals in 12 countries, aims to determine whether treatment can make patients with stroke within 6 hours benefit (for example: lifethemselves). 53% of patients in the study over 80 years. At present, recognized LAIR1 under the age of 80 stroke patients within 4-5 hours of acute ischemic stroke through thrombolysis benefit.The study is divided into A group 1515 for S & P enzyme treatment, the control group of 1520 people. In the first six months, the researchers found that the alteplase group and 554 (37%) can take care of LAIR2 themselves, while the control group, only 534 (35%). The incidence of 6 hours of treatment per 1000 patients over 14 patients can take care of themselves. The research team also found that 27% of A for the S & P enzyme group of patients may be left less disability.

Study, 80% of patients aged over 80 are accepted within 3 hours alteplase treatment, and the results show that the LAMP1 apparent benefit. In the six months, more than 80 patients per 1,000 patients daily living. A for enzyme group in the S & P 104 (7%) within 7 days, the symptoms of fatal or nonfatal bleeding, while the control group only 16 people (1%).7 days of the alteplase group mortality rate (163 [11%]) was significantly higher (107 [7%]). However, the research team found that A death toll for the S & P enzyme group in the 7 days to 6 months, 408 people (27%) while the control group of 407 people (27%), similar to the two groups.The researchers explain: "Given the type of patients recruited in the IST-3 (about 3/4 of patients in three hours after randomization and more than half are over 80 years old), the first six months, when the evidence table Minge for the S & P enzyme can improvefunctional outcomes. These data further confirmed the strategy to treat patients as soon as possible, provide a basis for the treatment extended to patients over the age of 80. these data do not support the limitation of treatment of stroke severity and necessary existence of an early brain scan ischemic changes. "In the second study, the University of Edinburgh, Western General Hospital, Professor, Joanna Wardlaw, and its sub-analysis of the IST-3 and other alteplase trials. The researchers evaluated 7012 patients within 6 hours of stroke receive intravenous alteplase treatment per 1000 patients, more than 42 patients can take care of themselves, more than 55 patients with good prognosis in the follow-up the end of a satisfactory effect. Although early symptomatic intracranial hemorrhage and early mortality is increased, but seven days to 3-6 months of follow-up to the end of the period mortality rates lower still so that patients benefit. The researchers observed a variety of reasons-induced death, and can not take care of patients the incidence is also reduced.The results show that thrombolysis within 3 hours of stroke with good prognosis was significant: the survival of patients with an increase of 87% 0, self-care patients, an increase of 90% 0. In addition, the comparison with alteplase, especially early treatment, more than 80 years of age and patients 80 years of age, in which patients treated within three hours more than 80 years of age per 1,000 people over 96 can live themselves.
by candywhy at 06-26-2012, 11:54 AM
B19 virus 25nm in diameter nonenveloped capsid was icosahedron structure, genomic single-stranded linear DNA, the total length of about 5.6kb left end of the genome of non-structural protein NS1 coding region of the genome right end of the structural proteins of VP1 ( 84kDa) and VP2 (58 kDa) coding region encoding VP2 gene sequence is entirely contained in the VP1 sequence, the N-terminus of the VP1 than VP2 227 amino acids, called the VP1 unique region (uVP1). The study found that most of the parvovirus VP1 unique region with phospholipase A2 activity, and parvovirus B19 also has this feature.ASL activity of VP1 unique region protein in the process of virus infection of host cells, have to make the virus able to dissolve the host cell membrane, and thus play an important role in the process of viral infection, the region has become one of the antiviral drug design a potential target.
In this study, site-directed mutagenesis by a will uVP1 of key amino acids ASL activity and virus infection, both in terms of VP1 unique area features the focus of the study is unique on the acyl-CoA binding domain containing 6 plays a key role in the 130,132134,154 bits of amino acids. In the experiment, the first purpose of gene VP1u inserted into the PUC-18a vector, and then to construct the recombinant plasmid PUC-uVP1 as a template, the use of PCR for rapid mutation, to get different sites of mutation after cloning the PUC-muVP1, were sequenced to confirm is correct, then mutation of unique region inserted into the expression vector pMal-c2x to construct recombinant prokaryotic expression vector pMal-umVP1 The. Respectively, after the mutation of the different sites of the prokaryotic expression vector induced expression in E. coli by SDS-PAGE and western-blot analysis detected, and then by expanding the training induced expression, and column purification, the collection of the target protein and to detect its ASL activity . This experiment to get the 154 mutation uVP1 activity tests showed that the 154 mutation uVP1 the enzyme activity is completely lost, suggesting that the 154 aspartic acid essential to the maintenance of the ASL activity.Meanwhile, the infectious clone of the building after the mutation of the corresponding sites of the B19 genome, provide a basic tool for uVP1 the function at the cellular level.The genome 2251 ~ 4291bp of gene sequences cloned in the process of building a mutation infection sexual cloning of pBluescript II of KS (+) built reorganization of plasmid PB2040 mutation PCR of the template, with the corresponding mutations lead material in vitro rapid mutagenesis carried out mutations, screening the mutation was cloned and sequenced correctly, the 2040bp fragment was cloned mutations after missing 2040bp fragment B19-4 244 plasmid in order to build up the appropriate mutant clones B19-4244m. The experiments have been successfully constructed pB2040, and by PCR-SDM, 132,134 and 154 amino acids of mutant pBG132R, pBG134R pBD154A, an intermediate for the construction of mutant infectious clone. These results further study the function of VP1 unique region provides the basic molecular biology tools to clarify the parvovirus B19 infection mechanism provides a theoretical basis.
by candywhy at 06-25-2012, 12:37 PM
Prevent colon cancer may be as simple as fond mate (mate of tea) you? In a recent study of the University of Illinois, USA, the scientists confirmed that they will die when the human Kdr colon cancer cells were exposed to biologically active compounds exist in a cup of mate, and people in South America because of the medical value of the mate and long-term drinking it. Elvira de Mejia, associate professor, University of Illinois food chemistry and food toxicology, said, "Mate contains caffeine KDSR derivatives induced cell death of human colon cancer, but also reduces inflammation markers." She said, it is very important, because inflammation can lead to cancer progression in a number of steps. In in vitro studies, de Mejia, and former graduate student Sirima Puangpraphant mate in the separation and purification of caffeoylquinic acid (caffeoylquinic acid, the CQA) derivatives, and then use these CQA deal with human KHK colon cancer cells. When the scientists to increase the CQA concentration, cancer cell apoptosis and death. She said, "All in all, the cancer cells because of its DNA and damage self-destructive." She said that the induction of apoptosis or cell death is a promising treatment strategy for all types of KIR2DL1 cancer therapeutic intervention. de Mejia, said that they can be identified leading to cell apoptosis.

Some of the CQA derivatives statistically significantly reduces several inflammatory markers, including of NF-κB. Important enzyme regulating many genes that affect the apoptotic process. de Mejia, said, eventually KIR2DL3 cancer cells in two specific enzymes - semi-caspases -3 (caspase 3) and semi-caspase -8 (the induction of caspase-8) and death. She adds, "If we can reduce of NF-kappa B --- an activity of the importance of inflammation and cancer linked markers ---, we will be better able to control normal cell into a cancer cell." She said that the results of this study strongly suggest mate in caffeine derivatives have potential as anticancer reagents, may also contribute to the treatment and inflammation associated with other diseases. Play a major role in the absorption and metabolism of caffeine related compounds but because of the colon and its microbial community (microflora), so the mate of the anti-inflammatory and anti-cancer effect in the colon can be very effective. She added, "We believe there is sufficient evidence to support drinking mate the effectiveness of biological activity, especially if people have reason to fear colon cancer. People can buy mate tea bags in health food stores but also in large supermarket to buy large amounts. " Scientists have completed a study of the control group rodent colon drink mate as the only water source of the rats and only drink water, will soon be the research results are published.
by candywhy at 06-23-2012, 12:46 PM
Chicago - A randomized trial showed that patients with ITGAM castration resistant prostate cancer receiving androgen receptor signaling the inhibitor enzalutamide treatment, survival extension of nearly five months. Enzalutamide (formerly known as: MDV3100) experimental group, the median overall survival was 18.4 months, the placebo-treated control group was 13.6 months. American Society of Clinical Oncology meeting, the report says Johann Sebastian de Bono, MD, the survival of ITK advantages continue to exist in which all pre-determined sub-group.As one of the Royal Marsden Hospital in England Sutton, Dr. deBono said: "I think this is we've seen the best chemotherapy and survival data. Most accept enzalutamide treatment of patients with prostate specific antigen response are greater than 50% of the baseline, which also includes a considerable portion of the PSA value ITLN1 decreased more than 90% of the baseline patients.Dr. de Bono said: "To be honest I never thought that this group of patients with PSA decline of 25% to 90%." Enzalutamide is an androgen receptor signaling antagonist, the first clinical model, there is no evidence that its agonist activity. Dr. de Bono explained that the destruction of the androgen receptor signaling for the entire signal ITPA transduction pathway.In the phase I / II experiments CRPC patients who did not receive chemotherapy or chemotherapy after disease progression, the anti-tumor activity of the drug have been confirmed. The two groups of patients in a large part of the decline of PSA values greater than or equal to 50%. The early positive results led to the enzalutamide treatment of CRPC patients with stage III, multicenter, randomized clinical IVD trials carried out. From 156 study centers in 15 countries surveyed cancer patients who respond to treatment Duoxitaisuo (Taxotere) as experimental subjects. These patients were randomly assigned in a 2:1 ratio daily enzalutamide treatment of the experimental group and to the same dose of placebo-treated control group. And overall survival as primary endpoint.

de Bono pointed out that steroids are not essential, but the doctors they can be used in conjunction with the study drug. Secondary endpoints included response indicators and progression-free survival (PFS). Preliminary analysis of 1199 patients, their median age was 69 years old. More than half of patients had previously received three or more of hormone therapy, more than a quarter of the patients had received two or more course of chemotherapy. All patients received treatment of Duoxitaisuo, median treatment of 8 cycles. In a planned interim analysis showed enzalutamide experimental group, survival was significantly increased after the study ended prematurely. The entire sample group, the median follow-up period of 14.4 months. Survival of 4.9 months of difference means enzalutamide experimental group relative to the control group for the lower risk of death by 37%. Experimental group and control group, the median duration of treatment were 8.3 months and 3 months.Objective response rate of the experimental and control groups were 28.9% and 3.8% (P <0.0001). Reported by Dr de Bono in enzalutamide experimental group and 54% of patients with PSA levels dropped by at least 50%, while the control group only 2% (P <0.0001). At the same time, 25% of patients with PSA declined by more than 90% in enzalutamide experimental group, while the control group only 1%. (P <0.0001)The median progression-free survival of 8.3 months and three months in enzalutamide experimental and control groups, respectively, decreased by 75% which means that the risk of biochemical progression. Radiation resistance of the median progression-free survival of in enzalutamide experimental group and control group were 8.3 and 2.9 target pharmaceutical treatment to a large extent of bone-related events starting time (experimental and control groups, respectively 16.7 months and 13.3 months, P <0.0001). Range of overall and individual ratings of enzalutamide experimental group patients quality of life assessment showed a clear advantage. Basically the same experimental group and control group the incidence of side effects, serious side effects, and interruption of treatment due to side effects and the incidence of fatal adverse reactions is almost the same.
by SUNNY CHAKRABORTY at 06-21-2012, 03:12 PM
by Payton at 06-21-2012, 01:43 AM
I'm not much familiar with biotechnology terminologies. I love dogs and
just curious to know that what breeds are generated with genetic engg and
biotechnology and what is the process.

How these sciences guarantee the health of new breeds dogs?
by Payton at 06-21-2012, 01:39 AM
My son is intending to adopt the bioinformatics for his bachelors. I want
to see him a computer programmer. So, would you guys like to share
some fair ideas as far as the career is concerned? I'll be thankful to you.
by candywhy at 06-19-2012, 05:33 PM
Recently, an article published in the internationally renowned commentaries Nature Reviews Molecular Cell Biology online reveals the IL31 stem cell niche. Stem cells exist in a specialized environment, known as the niche, and its ability to regulate stem cell characteristics and maintain the signal. Snapping a niche in physics in terms of the maintenance of stem cells is also very important, now Niola, who found ID (inhibitor of DNA binding) protein how to make neural stem cells to synchronize their niche in the IL32 stem and anchor. Mutant mice - the Id genes in neural stem cells in particular, knockout - will die within 24 hours after birth, and their proliferative ability of brain cells showed significantly reduced. Importantly, compared with control cells, neural stem cells to higher frequencies out of the cell cycle, stem cell compartment is also reduced. The culture of mutations in neural Il33 stem cells always have a severely impaired proliferation and self-renewal capacity, and premature differentiation. ID protein heterogeneous dimer with the basic helix - loop - helix (bHLH) transcription factor is an inhibition of DNA binding, at the same time Niola, who found encoding RAP1 a GTPase activating protein (RAP1GAP) gene as the ID protein is a direct goals. In the case of ID protein Rap1gap Il34 promoter is turned off, however, the lack of ID protein mutations in neural stem cells, to bHLH factor (with ID protein interactions) can Rap1gap promoter, and activation.

When neural stem cells were cultured in a media to promote their differentiation, the reduction in the loss of IL3RA stem cell markers and ID proteins, RAP1GAP increase, as well as the inhibition of RAP1 activity is consistent. In addition, the brain of knock Id mice showed abnormal expression of the ventricle region RAP1GAP, indicating that the ID inhibited the RAP1GAP expression of proteins in living organisms in order to maintain the activation of RAP1. RAP1 is a GTPase, known to regulate integrin signaling and the regulation of cell adhesion. Mutations in cultured stem cells is always a lack of ID protein, and therefore RAP1 activity, showing a reduction in focal adhesion, and can not adhere to the extracellular matrix (ECM) contains a layer of laminin or fibronectin. In addition, the adjustment of the Rap1gap RNA-silent fixes necessary for the ECM neural stem cell adhesion, indicating that the the ID-RAP1GAP-RAP1 path to stem cell adhesion to the ECM. Then reduced with the ID of the brain, RAP1GAP accumulation of the functional significance of what is it? Neural stem cells in the next ventricular zone dependent integrin contact with endothelial cells, thus constituting them to maintain the niche. ID proteins in embryonic and postnatal brain, neural stem cells to reduce the adhesion and the presence of nerve niche time every other room in the inactivation. Therefore, the ID of the-RAP1GAP-RAP1 path is necessary for neural stem cells anchored to their niche and to maintain the stem cell compartment. Further research will clarify the path of the ID-RAP1GAP-RAP1 function in stem cell manipulation to self-renewal and adhesion niche synchronization.
by Agbelepawo at 06-17-2012, 09:59 AM
Noncompetitive Inhibitors
The other type of inhibition is noncompetitive inhibition. In noncompetitive inhibition, a molecule binds to an enzyme somewhere other than the active site. This changes the enzyme's three-dimensional structure so that its active site can still bind substrate with the usual affinity, but is no longer in the optimal arrangement to stabilize the transition state and catalyze the reaction.
On the macroscopic scale, noncompetitive inhibition lowers the Vmax. Thus, the enzyme simply cannot catalyze the reaction with the same efficiency as the uninhibited enzyme. Note that noncompetitive inhibition cannot be overcome by raising the substrate concentration like competitive inhibition can.
Select either uninhibited or inhibited from the boxes below. Then click in the image area to see the course of an uninhibited or a noncompetitively inhibited enzymatic reaction.
For example, the amino acid alanine noncompetitively inhibits the enzyme pyruvate kinase. Alanine is one product of a series of enzyme-catalyzed reactions, the first step of which is catalyzed by pyruvate kinase.

Why does it make sense for the product of an enzymatic chain of reactions to inhibit one of the enzymes earlier in the chain? Type your answer in the space provided, then click on the Check button.
Some inhibitors have the effects of both competitive and noncompetitive inhibition, i.e., they affect both the enzyme's affinity for substrate and the maximal rate of catalysis. Such inhibitors are called mixed inhibitors
by Agbelepawo at 06-16-2012, 08:10 AM
Hi everyone in the room, I'm a fresh graduate in Biotechnology and i wish to proceed my career in the field of biotec and I have financial problem so am looking for scholarship to continue my education. Please if anyone have link or site you can send them to me. thanks
by biomedinfo at 06-11-2012, 03:34 PM
Online SAS Training with Project – BioMed Informatics Medwin Hospitals

Medwin Hospitals, a Multi Speciality Hospital with excellence in modern health care ventures BioMed Informatics in the field of Clinical Research by keeping in view of the tremendous applications in improving the quality of the health care.

Statistical analysis plays a predominant role in finding the safety and efficacy of a drug in Clinical Research. It is very difficult to draw a concrete conclusion from Clinical Research because of inherent differences between two individuals and also from group to group. The extent of this variability in a character is by way of chance, i.e., biological or normal is revealed by statistical methods. Interpretation, drawing conclusions and recommendations play a major role in Clinical Research.

Certificate will be provided by the BioMed Informatics Medwin Hospitals a Multi Speciality Hospital, Hyderabad. Certificate would be awarded at the end of the program.

Our candidates employed in Satyam Computers, ICMR, Quintiles, Novartis, Glenmark Pharmaceuticals Ltd, Parexel International (India) Pvt Ltd, Pioneer Corporate Services Inc-USA, AstraZeneca-UK,Texas Woman’s University-USA and many more…

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Phone: 040 - 40209750 / 66821025
by mohit_dave at 06-08-2012, 06:47 PM
I need bit of opinions from the members..
I have a chance to do an Mtech Biotechnology from SRM Univ Chennai and from BITS..need your opinions on which college will be better for me in terms of educational resources and good faculty and good lab work..
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