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Bioinformatics and its applications
Bioinformatics is the branch of science which uses the applications of information technology and computer science into the field of molecular biology. It was Paulien Hogeweg who invented the term Bioinformatics in 1979 to study the processes of information technology into biological systems. The science of bioinformatics actually develops algorithms and biological software of computer to analyze and record the data related to biology for example the data of genes, proteins, drug ingredients and metabolic pathways. As biological data is always in raw form and there is a need of certain storage house in which the data can be stored, organized and manipulated. Biological software and databases provide the scientists this opportunity so that the data can be extracted from these database easily and can be used by the scientists.

Bioinformatics joins mathematics, statistics, and computer science and information technology to solve complex biological problems. These problems are usually t the molecular level which cannot be solved by other means. This interesting field of science has many applications and research areas where it can be applied.

Sequence Analysis:-
The application of sequence analysis determines those genes which encode regulatory sequences or peptides by using the information of sequencing. For sequence analysis, there are many powerful tools and computers which perform the duty of analyzing the genome of various organisms. These computers and tools also see the DNA mutations in an organism and also detect and identify those sequences which are related. Shotgun sequence techniques are also used for sequence analysis of numerous fragments of DNA. Special software is used to see the overlapping of fragments and their assembly.

Prediction of Protein Structure:-
It is easy to determine the primary structure of proteins in the form of amino acids which are present on the DNA molecule but it is difficult to determine the secondary, tertiary or quaternary structures of proteins. For this purpose either the method of crystallography is used or tools of bioinformatics can also be used to determine the complex protein structures.

Genome Annotation:-
In genome annotation, genomes are marked to know the regulatory sequences and protein coding. It is a very important part of the human genome project as it determines the regulatory sequences.

Comparative Genomics:-
Comparative genomics is the branch of bioinformatics which determines the genomic structure and function relation between different biological species. For this purpose, intergenomic maps are constructed which enable the scientists to trace the processes of evolution that occur in genomes of different species. These maps contain the information about the point mutations as well as the information about the duplication of large chromosomal segments.

Health and Drug discovery:-
The tools of bioinformatics are also helpful in drug discovery, diagnosis and disease management. Complete sequencing of human genes has enabled the scientists to make medicines and drugs which can target more than 500 genes. Different computational tools and drug targets has made the drug delivery easy and specific because now only those cells can be targeted which are diseased or mutated. It is also easy to know the molecular basis of a disease.
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Bioinformatics plays an essential role in today's plant science. As the amount of data grows exponentially, there is a parallel growth in the demand for tools and methods in data management, visualization, integration, analysis, modeling, and prediction.
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Bioinformatics is the combination of biology and information technology which is used to understand biological phenomenon.Bioinformatics has revolutionized the advancement in biological science.
Application of bioinformatics:
1)Sequencing mapping of biomolecules
2)Molecular modelling of biomolecules.
3)Prediction of functional gene product
4)Identification of nucleotides sequence of functional genes.
In today's world Biotechnology largely benefitted from bioinformatics.
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Bioinformatics performs an important role in modern plant technology. As the amount of information develops significantly, there is a similar growth in the demand for resources and techniques in information management, visualization, incorporation, research, modelling, and forecast. At the same time, many scientists in biology are different with available bioinformatics methods, tools, and databases, which could lead to skipped possibilities or misinterpretation of the details. In this review, we explain some of the key ideas, techniques, software programs, and information source used in bioinformatics, with an focus on those appropriate to plant technology.
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