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Various Types of Biofertlizers
Biofertlizers are actually the living microorganisms which increase the fertility of the soil by providing nutrients required by the plants. These nutrients are in the form of animal wastes and other organic materials produced by the microorganisms. Due to these naturally occurring biofertlizers and nutrients, plants have less chances of suffering from any diseases. Microorganisms create a healthy environment for the plant in which it can grow without suffering from any harmful diseases and also do not cause any kind of pollution in the environment.

Important Biofertilizers:-
As it is known that biofertlizers are naturally occurring microorganisms, so here are some of the important biofertilizers which are beneficent in the cultivation of plants and help them to grow in a healthy environment.

Azotobacter Biofertlizers:-
Azotobacter is a bacterium that lives freely in the environment and has the ability to fix the atmospheric nitrogen into soil. It is used in the cultivation of many important crops because it is the important source of providing nitrogen to the plants. It enables the plant to germinate and grow without being effected from any harmful microbes.

Phosphate Solubilizers:-
Phosphate Solubilizers have the ability to dissolve the fixed phosphate and convert it in the form which can be utilized by the plants. They produce enzymes, hormones and organic acids. These components make possible the solubilization of insoluble phosphate so that it can easily be used by the plants.

Mycorrhiza is the symbiotic relationship between the roots of the plant and fungi. Fungi make colonies either intracellularly or extracellularly in the roots of the plants and provide nutrients to the plants which are helpful n its growth. Fungi are very important for the soil life.

Types of Biofertilizers:-
There are three types of biofertlizers which help the plant to grow at different levels of its growth.

Nitrogen Biofertilizers:-
This type of biofertilizer helps the soil to correct its nitrogen level. Nitrogen is an essential component for plant growth but plants need it in a limited amount. Different soils have different requirement for nitrogen that is why it depends on the cultivated crops that which type of nitrogen biofertilizer should be used. Azotobacter is a biofertilizer which provides the required amount of nitrogen to the plant from the soil.

Phosphorus Biofertlizers:-
Phosphorus is also a limiting factor and plants need it in particular amount. Phosphorus biofertlizers help the soil to correct the phosphorus level. As nitrogen biofertilizers depend on the cultivating crops, phosphorus biofertlizers do not depend on the cultivating crops. Rhizobium is the phosphorus biofertilizer.

Compost Biofertlizers:-
Compost biofertilizers are animals’ wastes which are degraded by the bacteria and used as the best naturally occurring biofertlizers. They not only protect the plants from diseases nut also help them to grow in a healthy environment.

Biofertilizers are made from the resources of fossil fuels which are nonrenewable. They have the ability to create imbalance of nutrients in he soil and are used by the soil in excessive amounts. They do not affect the quality of the soil or the health of the plant and provide them a friendly environment to grow. They also increase the crop yield which is not possible by other means. They have low cost and can be found easily.
Bio-fertilizer is very vast subject, it just does not mean fertilizer form microbial source. Today many plant extracts, composted urban waste, microbial mixture, and organic compound also coined as bio-fertilizers. Bio-fertilizers are defined as substance which contains micro-organism which colonizes with the interior walls of the plant and promotes their growth by increasing the availability of primary nutrients or growth stimulators!
Bio-fertilizers are broadly categorized in three ways as Nitrogen Fixing, Phosphate mobilizing, and organic matter decomposers. All these have their own type of role and play a very important role in maintaining the health of plant throughout their life cycle, continuing the soil quality and in increasing the yield without any side effect to environment. Thus they are eco-friendly as compared to chemical fertilizers. Microbes which are involved in Nitrogen fixing are – Rhizobium, Azatobacter, and Azospirillium. These microbes contains unique gene called as Nif-Gene which make them capable of fixing nitrogen. Another type is Phosphate mobilizing, these are – Bacillus pseudomonas, Species of Aspergillus species and VA Mycorrhiza . The decomposers of Organic matter are – Cellulomonas and Arthrobacter. All these types of microbes has special properties which make them capable of developing agriculture in true sense. Today microorganism is used as bio-fertilizer along with various micro nutrients, vitamins, growth hormones like Giberrilla and Auxin. Now in modern world of Biotechnology, Biopesticides are also used along with Bio-fertilizers which are helping plant to naturally develop resistance against diseases causing microorganism and pest! Bio-pesticides are the natural chemicals or micro-organism or biochemical which can kill micro-organism or pest naturally and has no effect on mammals as well as environment. It has more advantages as compare to chemical pesticides as it produces very less harmful residues, are biodegradable that is they get digested naturally, does not enter in food chain of animals and mammals !

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