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Designer babies
It is new era where babies can be designed with the help of In vitro fertilization. It has helped for many difficulties with having children. However, it raises a number of ethical issues, one of which is the ability to select for particular traits or diseases using a technique called pre-implantation genetic diagnosis (PGD).

pre-implantation genetic diagnosis was firstly done in 1989 to test embryos fertilized in vitro for inherited diseases such as cystic fibrosis, Huntingdon’s disease, and Fragile-X syndrome or for diseases causes by abnormal chromosome structure, such as Down’s Syndrome. After testing the unaffected embryos are implanted into the mother’s uterus. Earlier, the testing option for couples at risk of passing an inherited condition to their children was by sampling foetal cells from the placenta or amniotic fluid. If a foetus was observed to be affected, parents would then have to choose whether to continue with the pregnancy, or have an abortion.

Pre-implantation genetic diagnosis (PGD)

At the time of in vitro fertilization, eggs are removed from ovaries and fertilized with sperm in a Petri-plate. The fertilized eggs undergo normal cell division (Mitotic) until they have eight cells. At this phase, one or two of these cells are removed. DNA from the cells is extracted and tested for the presence of genetic disorders. The removal of cells for testing does not affect the development of the embryo, as these cells are restored as the embryo’s cells continue to divide and grow.

The genetics of the cells can be tested by using polymerase chain reaction (PCR) or fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH). PCR is used to look for single gene abnormalities, whereas fluorescence in situ hybridization is used to look for abnormal chromosomes.

Embryos that are not at risk of disease are then transferred into the woman’s uterus where they can be implanted and developed.
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Brief Background

The term vitro fertilization is not a new term anymore. Everyone is familiar with this term and every Tom, Dick, and Harry knows the pros and cons of this genetic engineering. Historically speaking, Louise of England was the very first baby which had been produced out of the mom’s womb. Yes, he was very first baby who had been designed in the late years of 1970s.


Actually there are two types of procedures known as artificial insemination and IVF. In the process of artificial insemination sperms are placed in the uterus while IVF is a process of combining sperms and eggs in the laboratory. Furthermore, once the embryos are formed, they are put in uterus for further actions. Besides, IVF is very expensive and pathetic procedure and it is the reason that hardly 5 % of couples look for this remedy. But, it must be noted that this procedure has so far produced more than 200,000 babies in the last few decades.

Which infertinity problems IVF treats?

IVF can be the best alternate option , if your partner or you has been diagnosed with the following:
1. Antibody problems which affects eggs or sperms
2. Long sperm counts
3. Unexplained fertility problem
4. Endometriosis
5. Problems with the fallopian tubes or uterus
6. Incapability of sperms to penetrate or survive in the cervical mucus

IVF is considered to be last resort. If your already applied methods such as use of drugs, artificial insemination, fertility problems, and surgery have not worked, this would be the best way to treat your ailment.

What should you expect from this treatment?

Actually harmones are injected for producing a big number of eggs every month. Egg retrival test has been carried out for determining the pre-pregnancy stage. Yes, injected harmones starts your ovulation process and development of eggs are highly noticed. It is suggested that before going through the IVF treatment, patient must get his blood tested. Otherwise, consulting a physician would be best way to deal with.
Sasa Milosevic
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