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Stem Cell and Gene therapy
Gene Therapy is advisable for genetic diseases which cannot be cured. Here stem cells are very important and most potent cells which can be used for gene therapy and after that they can be transplanted in to human. For gene therapy, DNA can be efficiently introduced with homologous recombination as for gene therapy we need to correct the specific gene defect without addition of harmful extraneous DNA sequences. Such correction is possible with homologous recombination between input DNA sequences and identical homologous sequences in the genome for target gene. To select the target cells, there are techniques for developing virtually pure populations of hematopoietic stem cells from heterogeneous population and it should permit the use of the highly efficient nuclear microinjection methods for transfer of DNA. It is important that the therapeutic DNA introduced into target cells must remain functional and the cells containing the therapeutic DNA must be long-lived and stable. Problems with integrating therapeutic DNA into the genome and the rapidly dividing nature of many cells prevent gene therapy from achieving any long-term benefits. Techniques combined with new highly sensitive methods for detecting cells with the specified genetic modification of non-expressed genes would make homologous recombination-mediated gene therapy feasible for hematopoietic stem cells. Now stem cell based gene therapy has been introduced for many genetic diseases like Leukemia and recently for skin diseases.

Sometime obtaining the stem cells from same individual is difficult and to come up with this problem in future it was suggested to derive the stem cells from placental cord at the time of baby birth. In recent development, obtaining stem cells from placental cord and cryo-preservation of them for future use has been introduced. This can be used once someone will be identified with genetic disorder. It is expected that the development in recent studied of stem cell based gene therapy will be revolutionary in future of health science.
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Gene Therapy

Human DNA is supposed to have about twelve million SNPS generally known as single nucleotidepolymorphisms apart from copy number variants in thousands. Yes, most of them are harmful and serious for human survival. It is the reason that genetic disorder happens to result in mutations that changes protein functionality. Gene therapy has a prime focus on ameliorating the defected or mutated genes through the following techniques:
1. Normal gene is instilled into the genome
2. Replacement of affected gene with normal
3. Amelioration of affected gene
4. Change in regulation of certain gene

The result of therapeutic treatment has been marginal. This style of ameliorating the gene is qualitative particularly dealing with single-gene disorder. Besides, the investigation in this matter is still under going.

Ethics of Gene Therapy

Conception of altering Dna of someone for curing a serious gene diseases has been completely changed from old styles of remedies. Yes, physical therapy, pharmaceuticals and surgery are totally different practices when it comes to execute gene therapy. It is the reason that most of the people are afraid of the therapy.

Most of the defects have been notified as enzyme defects. Not only this, there are other disorders like (DMD) Duchenne muscular dystrophy of which the outcome is absolute failure of protein functions. This disease is occurred owing to mutation process in dystrophin gene. This mutation fails regeneration of muscles which results in absolute muscle weaknesses. Presently, there is no treatment available to deal with this serious (DMD) diseases. Although, for individuals the one of the method cited above may help in recurring to peaceful life.

Inspite of this serious disease, most of the people raise their voice against the therapy. They display religious grounds against this therapy and hold the opinion that it is totally against the divine law as well as God (The Creator).
Sasa Milosevic
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The conference will focus on fundamental and applied aspects associated with the botany, zoology, biotechnology, molecular biology, ecology and rational use of natural resources, plant & fungi physiology, animal & human physiology etc. The conference will be dedicated to the 50th anniversary of the Faculty of Biology, Donetsk National University.
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