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Biotechnology, microbial protein production of fodder yeast
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[size=small]Over the past decades of the century, much attention has been given to use of chemicals in different industries. This is dictated by the logic of scientific and technological progress. The next stage of development in some important areas of the economy – bipolarization: the introduction of microbiological and biochemical processes for the intensification of production, especially agricultural.

These processes have emerged recently and are already firmly entrenched in the life of the new term biotechnology. In fact, this concept is not new, ancient productions, such as obtaining alcohol by fermentation, baking, wine making, and silage making are all related to biotechnology. In modern biotechnology - a multidisciplinary field of scientific and technological progress, includes microbiological synthesis, gene and cell engineering.

Microbial cell and its capability

The microbial cell is capable of in one day processing an enormous mass of nutrients 40 times greater than her own. The extraordinary rate of reproduction, the ability to synthesize large quantities of a variety of substances, and trigger biochemical processes that cannot carry out animal cells and higher plants - all of these microbial properties make them unequaled vendors of many valuable products, above all of the protein. Now, as already noted, the world's population receives little animal protein - only 40% of scientifically based standards. In the future due to rapid population growth, much more protein will be required (65 ... 70 million tons annually). The traditional methods of protein production will be insufficient. This is true even with the rapid development of unproductive land, breeding high-yielding varieties of plants, and highly productive breeds of animals.

The idea of a microbial protein, which within its amino acid composition, food quality would be nearer to the natural product, and even surpass it, was born about 30 years ago. Presented with two ways of obtaining protein: for human food and animal feeding, the second trend is already fully utilized. On special plants, using microorganisms receive feed protein and other products to eliminate the acute shortage of protein in the feed of farm animals. It was found that microbial protein is rich in essential amino acids (lysine, threonine, tryptophan, methionine, isoleucine, phenylalanine, and tyrosine). Small addition of these dramatically improve food.

Why microbial protein?

To obtain microbial protein industrially, does not depend on climate, or the season. It can be used in the Far North, and in equatorial countries. It is also important that bacteria, yeast, used in biotechnology, have a very high productivity.

Thus, the current fermenters, set at the factory, in one day provide a growing 28 - 30 tons of yeast biomass containing 11 - 13 thousand kg of digestible protein each. Hence, the yeast in a fermented form of the protein is not less than 100 thousand bulls. If, for example, a yearling calf could accumulate biomass as quickly as microorganisms, then one day he would have grown to such an extent that would not fit in a room of 20 m2.

High rate of microbial synthesis, and high quality of its products due to the fact that in recent years, production of feed yeast, fodder and veterinary drugs rose by more than 12 times, enzyme preparations in 58 times, the commercial production of lysine and other products.

Wide production of fodder yeast will reduce the deficit of protein in the diet of animal feed. The biomass of yeast is one of the most valuable biologically manufactured feed (about 50% of its dry matter is protein). It contains all the essential amino acids assimilating better than the protein concentrated feeds of vegetable origin. For example, feed yeast is 9 - 11 times greater than Lysine, 5 - 7 - methionine, 2 - 4 - tryptophan than in fodder grain (barley, oats). Yeasts are also a source of essential vitamins and trace elements, various enzymes and hormones. They improve metabolism and digestion of proteins and carbohydrates.
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