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Applications and Various Methods of Recombinant DNA (rDNa) Technology
Recombinant DNA (rDNa) technology is known as a field of molecular biology by which new synthetic molecules are produced through editing DNA. Synthetic molecules are known as chimeras. This is a procedure in which cutting, pasting, and copying DNA dates back to Arthur Kornberg's successful replication of viral DNA in a breakthrough which is served as a proof-of-concept for cloning. After the discovery of restriction enzymes by the Swiss biochemist Werner Arber in bacteria. Geneticists have learned how to cut DNA molecules from Arber and soon to follow was the understanding that ligase could be used to "glue" them together in human history these two achievements allowed Man to "play god" for the first time by launching rDNA technology. Now a day’s cloning is a common term which is done by rDNA technology.

There are three basic methods by which rDNA molecule can be produced- Transformation, Non-Bacterial Transformation, and Phage Introduction. However, no matter which method is used, the goal is to introduce recombinant genes into a host cell along with expression factor, so that the host cell can express protein of interest. It needs to "turn off" the signals that tell a host cell to destroy or degrade the genes being introduced in every case.

Paul Berg, won the Nobel Prize in 1980 for his outstanding work in rDNA research, he did some potentially dangerous experiments. As a result, public policy could deal with the dilemmas posed by new technological possibilities. In 1975, at the Asilomar Conference the leading recombinant DNA specialists came together and gave their opinion about the need for safeguards to prevent any health crises or ecological disasters. They also ensure the public that their research would proceed with caution.

The collaboration between Herbert Boyer and Stanley Cohen in 1972 and founding of the first company to work with rDNA in its drug development labs, Genetech was another milestone in the development of recombinant DNA. Scientists were able to replicate human growth hormone somatostain in 1978. Since then, host of other drugs like Epogen and Herceptin have been developed by r DNA research.

There are some controversial views about use of rDNA technology. Some think that this is not ethically legal, whereas others think that it is not environmentally friendly. But scientists say that recombinant DNA research is really a promising field which is too much ambitious. Now a day’s transgenic plants, transgenic animal, different drugs, heterologus gene expression etc. are being done through rDNA technology. By producing the targeted medicines and supplying patients with less toxic pharmaceuticals it will play an important role in preventing genetic disease in future. As researchers find ways to optimize the genetic codes of plants and animals to resist disease it will also impact agriculture and livestock. By using recombinant DNA it is possible to produce GM food which plays an important role to fulfill our demand for food. So rDNA technology has introduced a new era in the world of biotechnology.
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