From the prokaryotic expression of macrophage-related genes ATG5 - Printable Version
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From the prokaryotic expression of macrophage-related genes ATG5 - candywhy - 07-02-2012
Autophagy is an important degradation mechanism in the cell by autophagy, intracellular delivery of aging proteins to lysosomes for degradation. Early studies suggested that autophagy is mainly an adaptive response of the state of hunger. However, recent studies suggest that, in the course of neurodegenerative diseases, tumors, pathogen infection, autophagy play a significant role, even without the presence of any abnormal protein, loss of autophagy can lead to diseases. The expression of autophagy-related gene (ATG) has an important role in the maturation of autophagy regulation, the different stages of the formation of autophagosomes, different ATG molecular regulation. To be sure, ATG, genes play an important role in the process of autophagy, but must be clear ATG molecules involved in the formation of a series of molecular mechanisms of autophagy is still lack of identification and testing materials. ATG5 is the formation of an important gene for autophagy, in order to study the role of autophagy in disease, in vitro expression and purification of the reorganization of ATG5, and preparation of a polyclonal anti-ATG5 antibody, in order to study autophagy and development testing and research tools.Cell autophagy and cell phagocytosis is the intrusion of cellular defense in two different but related process, phagocytosis of extracellular antigens wrapped and endocytosis, autophagy can be wrapped in the cytoplasm of pathogens, proteins and organelles of the double-layer membrane structure, followed by phagosome or combined autophagosomes with lysosomes and decomposition of the contents. Autophagy plays an important role in cell growth, development and disease.
With the successful identification of key molecules involved in autophagic programmed cell death pathway, the molecular mechanism of autophagy, the physiological function and role in the pathological process in a better understanding. Relative to the major degradation of the short half-life of protein ubiquitin - proteasome system, cells, autophagy is involved in the vast majority of long half-life of protein degradation. On the morphology, the development of autophagic vacuoles wrapped with bilayer membrane degeneration and necrosis of the cell and part of the cytoplasm, autophagic vacuoles, since macrophages bubble's outer membrane with the lysosomal membrane fusion, the material of the endometrium and its packages into the lysosomal lumen, the lysosomal enzyme hydrolysis. The study found that ATG5 as the cells switch for autophagy and apoptosis, plays an important regulatory functions in the occurrence of autophagy and development. Autophagic vacuoles in the early stages, ATG12-ATG5-ATG16I the formation of complexes of its outer membrane combination, this combination on the one hand promote stretching expansion of autophagic vacuoles, so that by the beginning of the small vesicles half ring structure; ATG5 complex and autophagic vacuoles membrane binding also promotes microtubule associated protein light chain 3 (LC3.) to the autophagic vacuoles move and concentrate. ATG5 complex in the membrane position determines the bending direction of the membrane, the membrane extending toward the direction of the ATG5 complex. When located in the bilayer membrane structure of autophagic vacuoles form a closed circular shape, or just closed ATG5 complex will be from the down by double-layer membrane, leaving only the membrane-bound form of LC3.-II autophagy taking a dip. Studies have shown that macrophages lack ATG5 lysosomes can not be fusion with the phagosome. In addition, Yousefi, a ATG5 was calcium-dependent neutral protease the caplain specific cutting the proteins transferred from the cytoplasm to the mitochondria, and anti-apoptotic molecule Bcl-X regulation of cytochrome C release and caspase activation and thus significantly to promote apoptosis.