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DNA From Saliva
#1
Saliva and saliva-stained materials were examined and said to be a potential sources of deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA) for DNA analysis and identity testing. This was done by isolating DNA and DNA banding patterns suitable for DNA typing were obtained from fresh saliva and various saliva-stained materials, such as envelopes, buccal swabs, gags, and cigarettes.

Furthermore, DNA and DNA banding patterns were obtained from samples containing mixed saliva or semen stains. The DNA banding patterns obtained from saliva or saliva-stained material were impossible to differentiate from the patterns obtained from blood or hair from the same person. DNA banding patterns were obtained from saliva stored at 20 degrees from the isolated DNA and also from dried saliva stains stored under different conditions. This lead to the conclusion that saliva and saliva-stained material can be good sources of DNA for analysis and for DNA typing in certain forensic settings.

Interestingly it was found in a study supported by the National Institute of Dental Research, that when we lick an envelope, we may be sending a more detailed information than we realize. Our saliva leaves a DNA fingerprint that not only says who we are, but also tells that whether we have any genetic tendency for certain diseases. This makes saliva a promising alternative to blood as a source of DNA for genetic testing,

It was found out by Drs. Rob van Scheme and Mark Wilson at the State University of New York that even minor differences such as difference in bases or detect person-to-person differences of as little as a single nucleotide, or structural unit, in the genes. This seemingly small difference in gene structure is known to affect the proper functioning of the immune system.

Diseases potentially connected to these genes include childhood respiratory infections, lupus and juvenile periodontal disease (LJP), a particularly aggressive form of gum disease that occurs in young adults.
As the saliva was believed to have genes that can be screened for genetic diseases, young children can be tested earlier for susceptibility to LJP.

Saliva has other apparent advantages over blood as a clinical tool; being a substitute for blood it opens doors to wide range of population which were not easily accessible. Drawing blood is very invasive and it is not a practical procedure for children or individuals that can't give blood for religious or medical reasons. It is also a frightening prospect for most adults. Provided they can be easily collected, stored and shipped which can be obtained at low cost in sufficient quantities for analysis. They are easy to purify than blood samples.

Forensic scientists can retrieve enough saliva from a postage stamp to identify the person that licked the stamp. Saliva has also been used to test for fragile X syndrome, a rare genetic disorder that causes mental retardation in children who carry the gene.

The technology that allows tiny amounts of salivary DNA to be examined in such detail is a procedure called polymerase chain reaction, or PCR. PCR can be used to replicate small pieces of DNA a billion fold, and with such accuracy minor differences in gene structure are readily distinguishable in laboratory tests. The method is so sensitive one milliliter of saliva (approximately 1/5 teaspoon) yields enough DNA to do over one hundred separate tests. PCR has also been used to identify very small amounts of DNA obtained from fossilized animals, forensic specimens and infectious microorganisms.

Although saliva has the potential to reveal variations in any gene whose sequence is known, but this not proved to b an universal application. Investigators caution that as DNA in saliva comes from many sources, including blood, tissue cells and non-human DNA from bacteria and food particles. Each human gene will have to be validated for accurate PCR identification -- and the number of disease-related genes that have been identified is rapidly growing.

Recently it was proved that adults have a genetic marker for periodontal (gum) disease and hence can be screened with saliva at earlier stage. . Other important possibilities would be the genes for Alzheimer's disease, cystic fibrosis or breast cancer. As the structure of more genes becomes known, it may be possible to test for many genetic disorders from a single sample of saliva.
#2
Spirulina benefits our body in many ways such as keeping your muscles strong and taut, your body firm and vigorous, as well as your brain intact and healthy. Spirulina is a popular nutritional supplement derived from two types of cyanobacteria namely Arthrospira platensis and Arthrospira maxima. The former is generally distributed in Asia, South America and Africa whereas the latter is found in Central America

Spirulina as a dietary supplement counts numerous spirulina benefits you and your family could enjoy such as:

1.- An increase in overall energy and productivity. Spirulina is rich in proteins and vitamins that helps your body use and distribute energy sufficiently so that you are highly competitive and ready in any situation. Spirulina keeps you on-the-go, smart, happy, and active all the time.

2.- Spirulina is complete with all essential amino acids needed for the body’s growth and metabolism. Muscle building and fatty acid utilization are greatly facilitated because all necessary elements for body metabolism are available. Spirulina is a great supplement to add to your daily dietary and exercise practices. It is effective in helping lower cholesterol levels and increase lean muscle mass.

3.- Spirulina benefits involve keeping each cell in your body healthy by boosting the immune system and fighting free radical formation. Studies have shown that spirulina increases the production of immune system cells in the bone marrow thereby producing more red blood cells, T-cells, B-cells, and macrophages to help fight infection and foreign body invasion.

4.- The complete nutrient package in spirulina aids in cellular repair and health. Studies have shown that the amino acids and vitamins in Spirulina promote DNA synthesis to help the body build new cells and produce important products to heal damaged cells.

5.- If you want a beautiful and glowing outer physique, daily vitamin and nutrient intake will help you reach your goal. Spirulina benefits keep your skin’s cell healthy, moisturized, and protected, so make sure you take your daily supplements from now on.


http://www.spirulinabenefitssite.com/spi...-benefits/
#3
Hiiiii....I read your informative post and you are true we can get saliva from DNA.Saliva will contain epithelial cells from the inside of the mouth. These are nucleated and hence a source of DNA. A DNA profile can be obtained from saliva and saliva stains. For forensic analysis the inside cheeks of the mouth are swabbed and provide the DNA for profiling.
Your saliva leaves a DNA fingerprint that not only says who you are, but also whether you have a genetic predisposition for certain diseases. This wealth of information contained in saliva makes it a promising alternative to blood as a source of DNA for genetic testing, according to a report in this month’s issue of the Journal of Immunological Methods.
#4
Saliva as a DNA source is the great discovery and it can bring revolution in the medical field. It also make a lot of things easier and cheaper for the common people.
  




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